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134 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
acetabulum
Cuplike cavity on lateral surface of the hip bone that receives the femur.
acromegaly
is a hormonal disorder that results when the pituitary gland produces excess growth hormone (hGH).
appositional growth
Growth accomplished by the addition of new layers onto those previously formed.
axial
Relating to the head, neck, and trunk; one of the two major divisions of the body.
bony callus
spongy bone created by fibrocartilaginous buildup during bone repair
calcaneus
the heel bone
calcitonin (not technically a “thyroid hormone”)
Hormone released by the thyroid that promotes a decrease in calcium levels of the blood; also called thyrocalcitonin.
calcitriol
the active form of vitamin D found in the body (vitamin D3)
canaliculi
a small channel found in ossified bone
capitulum and trochlea
found at the distal end of the humerus bone and the medial portion of the articular surface of the humerus
carpals
the cluster of bones in the hand between the radius and ulna and the metacarpus
cervical
The seven vertebrae of the vertebral column located in the neck.
chondrocytes
Mature cell form of cartilage.
clavicle
a bone that makes up part of the shoulder girdle (pectoral girdle).
coccyx
commonly referred to as the tailbone, is the final segment of the human vertebral column, of three to five (usually four) fused vertebrae
collagen
The most abundant of the three fibers found in the matrix of connective tissue.
compact bone
Dense outer layer of skeletal bone; lamellar bone.
condyle
projections on the lower extremity of femur. It is the more prominent and is the broader both in its antero-posterior and transverse diameters.
cranial
Bony protective encasement of the brain and organs of hearing and equilibrium; also called the skull.
diaphysis
Diffusion of solute(s) through a semipermeable membrane.
diploe
The internal layer of spongy bone in flat bones.
endochondral ossification
Embryonic formation of bone by the replacement of calcified cartilage; most skeletal bones are formed by this process.
endosteum
Connective tissue membrane covering internal bone surfaces.
epicondyles
larger and more prominent than the lateral epicondyle, is directed a little backward; it gives attachment to the ulnar collateral ligament of the elbow-joint
epiphyseal plate
Plate of hyaline cartilage at the junction of the diaphysis and epiphysis that provides for growth in length of a long bone.
epiphysis
The end of a long bone, attached to the shaft.
ethmoid
bone in the skull that separates the nasal cavity from the brain.
fibrocartilaginous callus
The most compressible type of cartilage; resistant to stretch. Forms vertebral discs and knee joint cartilages.
fibula
or calf bone is a bone placed on the lateral side of the tibia, with which it is connected above and below. It is the smaller of the two bones, and, in proportion to its length, the most slender of all the long bones.
foramen magnum
n the occipital bone, the foramen magnum (Latin: 'great hole') is one of the several oval or circular apertures in the base of the skull (the foramina), through which the medulla oblongata (an extension of the spinal cord) enters and exits the skull vault.
foramen/foramina
Hole or opening in a bone or between body cavities.
fossa
A depression, often an articular surface.
frontal
Longitudinal (vertical) plane that divides the body into anterior and posterior parts.
gigantism
a condition characterized by excessive height growth.
glenoid cavity
On the lateral angle of the scapula is a shallow pyriform, articular surface, the glenoid cavity (or glenoid fossa of scapula), which is directed lateralward and forward and articulates with the head of the humerus
growth hormone
Hormone that stimulates growth in general; produced in the anterior pituitary; also called somatotropin (STH).
hematoma
Mass of clotted blood that forms at an injured site.
hydroxyapatite
the main mineral component of dental enamel, dentin, and bone
interstitial growth
Growth from a number of different centers within an area. The growth process most apparent during cartilage formation.
intervertebral foramen
When the vertebrae are articulated with each other the bodies form a strong pillar for the support of the head and trunk, and the vertebral foramina constitute a canal for the protection of the medulla spinalis (spinal cord), while between every pair of vertebræ are two apertures, the intervertebral foramina, one on either side, for the transmission of the spinal nerves and vessels.
intramembranous ossification
is one of two types of bone formation and is the process responsible for the development of flat bones, especially those found in the skull. Unlike endochondral ossification, cartilage is not involved or present in this process.
maxilla
The maxillae are the largest bones of the face, except for the mandible, and form, by their union, the whole of the upper jaw.
medullary cavity
The marrow cavity in long bones; in adults, contains fat (yellow marrow).
mesenchymal cells
are multipotent stem cells that can differentiate into a variety of cell types. Found in bone marrow
metacarpals
The metacarpus is the intermediate part of the hand skeleton that is located between the fingers distally and the carpus which forms the connection to the forearm. It consists of five cylindrical bones which are numbered from the radial to the ulnar side (ossa metacarpalia I-V).
metaphysis
the body of cartilage that separates the epiphyses and the diaphysis of long bones during growth.
metatarsals
The metatarsus consists of the five long bones of the foot, which are numbered from the medial side (ossa metatarsalia I.-V.); each presents for examination a body and two extremities.
occipital
Forms most of the posterior wall and base of the skull externally.
olecranon process
The elbow joint. Three bones form the elbow joint: the humerus of the upper arm, and the paired radius and ulna of the forearm.
os coxae
The pelvis (pl. pelvises or pelves) is the bony structure located at the base of the spine (properly known as the caudal end).
osteoblasts
Bone-forming cells.
osteoclasts
Large cells that resorb or break down bone matrix.
osteocytes
Mature bone cell.
osteons
System of interconnecting canals in the microscopic structure of adult compact bone; unit of bone; also called Haversian system.
parathyroid glands
Small endocrine glands located on the posterior aspect of the thyroid gland.
parathyroid hormone
Hormone released by the parathyroid glands that regulates blood calcium level.
parietal
are bones in the human skull and form, by their union, the sides and roof of the cranium. Each bone is irregularly quadrilateral in form, and has two surfaces, four borders, and four angles.
pectoral girdle
Bones that attach the upper limbs to the axial skeleton; includes the clavicle and scapula.
pelvic girdle vs. pelvis
Consists of the paired coxal bones that attach the lower limbs to the axial skeleton.
perichondrium
Fibrous, connective-tissue membrane covering the external surface of cartilaginous structures.
periosteum
Double-layered connective tissue that covers and nourishes the bone.
processes
(1) Prominence or projection; (2) series of actions for a specific purpose.
rickets
Disorder in which bones are inadequately mineralized; caused by insufficient dietary calcium or vitamin D deficiency.
spongy bone
Internal layer of skeletal bone. Also called cancellous bone.
sutures
An immovable fibrous joint; with one exception, all bones of the skull are united by sutures.
thyroid
One of the largest of the body's endocrine glands; straddles the anterior trachea.
trabeculae
(1) Any of the fibrous bands extending from the capsule into the interior of an organ; (2) struts or thin plates of bone in spongy bone.
acetabulum
Cuplike cavity on lateral surface of the hip bone that receives the femur.
acromegaly
is a hormonal disorder that results when the pituitary gland produces excess growth hormone (hGH).
appositional growth
Growth accomplished by the addition of new layers onto those previously formed.
axial
Relating to the head, neck, and trunk; one of the two major divisions of the body.
bony callus
spongy bone created by fibrocartilaginous buildup during bone repair
calcaneus
the heel bone
calcitonin (not technically a “thyroid hormone”)
Hormone released by the thyroid that promotes a decrease in calcium levels of the blood; also called thyrocalcitonin.
calcitriol
the active form of vitamin D found in the body (vitamin D3)
canaliculi
a small channel found in ossified bone
capitulum and trochlea
found at the distal end of the humerus bone and the medial portion of the articular surface of the humerus
carpals
the cluster of bones in the hand between the radius and ulna and the metacarpus
cervical
The seven vertebrae of the vertebral column located in the neck.
chondrocytes
Mature cell form of cartilage.
clavicle
a bone that makes up part of the shoulder girdle (pectoral girdle).
coccyx
commonly referred to as the tailbone, is the final segment of the human vertebral column, of three to five (usually four) fused vertebrae
collagen
The most abundant of the three fibers found in the matrix of connective tissue.
compact bone
Dense outer layer of skeletal bone; lamellar bone.
condyle
projections on the lower extremity of femur. It is the more prominent and is the broader both in its antero-posterior and transverse diameters.
cranial
Bony protective encasement of the brain and organs of hearing and equilibrium; also called the skull.
diaphysis
Diffusion of solute(s) through a semipermeable membrane.
diploe
The internal layer of spongy bone in flat bones.
endochondral ossification
Embryonic formation of bone by the replacement of calcified cartilage; most skeletal bones are formed by this process.
endosteum
Connective tissue membrane covering internal bone surfaces.
epicondyles
larger and more prominent than the lateral epicondyle, is directed a little backward; it gives attachment to the ulnar collateral ligament of the elbow-joint
epiphyseal plate
Plate of hyaline cartilage at the junction of the diaphysis and epiphysis that provides for growth in length of a long bone.
epiphysis
The end of a long bone, attached to the shaft.
ethmoid
bone in the skull that separates the nasal cavity from the brain.
fibrocartilaginous callus
The most compressible type of cartilage; resistant to stretch. Forms vertebral discs and knee joint cartilages.
fibula
or calf bone is a bone placed on the lateral side of the tibia, with which it is connected above and below. It is the smaller of the two bones, and, in proportion to its length, the most slender of all the long bones.
foramen magnum
n the occipital bone, the foramen magnum (Latin: 'great hole') is one of the several oval or circular apertures in the base of the skull (the foramina), through which the medulla oblongata (an extension of the spinal cord) enters and exits the skull vault.
foramen/foramina
Hole or opening in a bone or between body cavities.
fossa
A depression, often an articular surface.
frontal
Longitudinal (vertical) plane that divides the body into anterior and posterior parts.
gigantism
a condition characterized by excessive height growth.
glenoid cavity
On the lateral angle of the scapula is a shallow pyriform, articular surface, the glenoid cavity (or glenoid fossa of scapula), which is directed lateralward and forward and articulates with the head of the humerus
growth hormone
Hormone that stimulates growth in general; produced in the anterior pituitary; also called somatotropin (STH).
hematoma
Mass of clotted blood that forms at an injured site.
hydroxyapatite
the main mineral component of dental enamel, dentin, and bone
interstitial growth
Growth from a number of different centers within an area. The growth process most apparent during cartilage formation.
intervertebral foramen
When the vertebrae are articulated with each other the bodies form a strong pillar for the support of the head and trunk, and the vertebral foramina constitute a canal for the protection of the medulla spinalis (spinal cord), while between every pair of vertebræ are two apertures, the intervertebral foramina, one on either side, for the transmission of the spinal nerves and vessels.
intramembranous ossification
is one of two types of bone formation and is the process responsible for the development of flat bones, especially those found in the skull. Unlike endochondral ossification, cartilage is not involved or present in this process.
maxilla
The maxillae are the largest bones of the face, except for the mandible, and form, by their union, the whole of the upper jaw.
medullary cavity
The marrow cavity in long bones; in adults, contains fat (yellow marrow).
mesenchymal cells
are multipotent stem cells that can differentiate into a variety of cell types. Found in bone marrow
metacarpals
The metacarpus is the intermediate part of the hand skeleton that is located between the fingers distally and the carpus which forms the connection to the forearm. It consists of five cylindrical bones which are numbered from the radial to the ulnar side (ossa metacarpalia I-V).
metaphysis
the body of cartilage that separates the epiphyses and the diaphysis of long bones during growth.
metatarsals
The metatarsus consists of the five long bones of the foot, which are numbered from the medial side (ossa metatarsalia I.-V.); each presents for examination a body and two extremities.
occipital
Forms most of the posterior wall and base of the skull externally.
olecranon process
The elbow joint. Three bones form the elbow joint: the humerus of the upper arm, and the paired radius and ulna of the forearm.
os coxae
The pelvis (pl. pelvises or pelves) is the bony structure located at the base of the spine (properly known as the caudal end).
osteoblasts
Bone-forming cells.
osteoclasts
Large cells that resorb or break down bone matrix.
osteocytes
Mature bone cell.
osteons
System of interconnecting canals in the microscopic structure of adult compact bone; unit of bone; also called Haversian system.
parathyroid glands
Small endocrine glands located on the posterior aspect of the thyroid gland.
parathyroid hormone
Hormone released by the parathyroid glands that regulates blood calcium level.
parietal
are bones in the human skull and form, by their union, the sides and roof of the cranium. Each bone is irregularly quadrilateral in form, and has two surfaces, four borders, and four angles.
pectoral girdle
Bones that attach the upper limbs to the axial skeleton; includes the clavicle and scapula.
pelvic girdle vs. pelvis
Consists of the paired coxal bones that attach the lower limbs to the axial skeleton.
perichondrium
Fibrous, connective-tissue membrane covering the external surface of cartilaginous structures.
periosteum
Double-layered connective tissue that covers and nourishes the bone.
processes
(1) Prominence or projection; (2) series of actions for a specific purpose.
rickets
Disorder in which bones are inadequately mineralized; caused by insufficient dietary calcium or vitamin D deficiency.
spongy bone
Internal layer of skeletal bone. Also called cancellous bone.
sutures
An immovable fibrous joint; with one exception, all bones of the skull are united by sutures.
thyroid
One of the largest of the body's endocrine glands; straddles the anterior trachea.
trabeculae
(1) Any of the fibrous bands extending from the capsule into the interior of an organ; (2) struts or thin plates of bone in spongy bone.