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48 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What terms of the Treaty of Paris did British ignore?
-Kept troops at frontier posts in United States
As the colonies created their state constitutions, how did they show their distrust of a single ruler?
-Adopted constitutions that limited the power of the governor
Two ways in which the colonial constitutions limited the power of legislatures
-Bicameral legislatures
-State legislatures popularly elected, and elections were frequet
Branch of government that had the most power in the new state government
Legislatures , because people restricted the powers of governors
Ordiance of 1785
Law that established a procedure for surveying and selling the land north of Ohio River and divided western lands into township
Northwest Ordiance of 1787
-Created a single northwest territory out of the lands north of the Ohio River and east of the Mississippi River
-Land divided into five territories
-Apply for statehood
Financial problems of new government
-Paper $ during war had depreciated
-Congress began to process their own paper money
-Had a huge debt [American citizens, foreign governments, and soldiers]
Terms of Articles of Confederation
-National government [Confederation Congress] had the authority to conduct foreign affairs, maintain armed forces, borrow $, issue currency
-Could not regulate trade, force soldiers to join army, or impose taxes
-States were not required to contribute
-Lacked a chief executive to enforce its laws
Robert Morris' import tax plan
-5% tax on imported goods
-Not all 13 states [12 approved], so it "killed the measure"
How Great Britain and American states failed to live up to the terms of Treaty of Paris
Britain
-Did not withdraw troops
-Kept Americans out of profitable British markets
America
-Did not pay Loyalists for property taken throughtout the war
Problems between American states and Spain
-Spain closed off lower Mississippi River to American shipping [worried that Americans might expand land into their territory]
-Agreement was reached between Americans & Spain, but Southern states rejected it <-- they would have to give up Mississippi River
Farmers' problem
-Couldnt sell their goods, so lead to problems paying the taxes that the states levied to meet the Revolutionary War debt
Shay's Rebellion
-Led by Daniel Shays
-Farmers forced courts in western Massachusetts to close so judges couldnt confiscate their lands
-Shays lead more than 1000 farmers to the federal arsenal
-Frightened many Americans --> worried whether the government could control unrest and prevent violence
Change in institution of slavery
-North abolished slavery
-South clung to slavery
Virginia Plan
-Devised by James Madison
-Two-house legislature
-Chief executive chosen by legislature
-Court system
-Members of lower house elected by people
-Members of upper house elected by those in lower house
-In the houses, # of representatives would be proportional to the population in states
New Jersey Plan
-William Paterson devised it
-Alternative plan that modified the Articles of Confederation
-Kept Confederation's one-house Congress with equal representation
-Proposed to give expanded power to tax and trade
Roger Sherman & Great Compromise
-Roger Sherman [representative from Connecticut]
-Two house legislature
-Lower house (House of Representatives), # of representatives would be proportional to population in state
-Upper house (Senate) each state would have two members
Three-Fifths Compromise
-Every five slaves would be equal to three white people
-Taxation and representation purposes
Compromise regarding slave trade
-Congress would not interfere with slave trade for 20 years
-After that Congress could limit slave trade
Why delegates Elbridge Gerry and George Mason refused to sign Constitution
No bill of rights was written at that time
John Locke's view of government
-Believed that all people should have a natural right to life, libery, and property
-Government is based on an agreement between the people and ruler [Contract protected the people and the rules]
Montesquieu's idea about separating powers of government
-Declared that powers of government should be separated and balanced against each other
-Separation would keep any one person or group from gaining too much power
-Powers should be defined & limited to prevent misuse
Job of legeslative branch
-Collecting taxes
-Coining money
-Regulating trade
-Could declare war
-Make all laws need to meet the functions given by the Constitution
Job of executive branch
-Carry out the nation's laws and policies
-President was to be head of it
Job of judicial branch
Supreme and federal courts
-Hear cases
-Judge laws
Purpose of checks and balances
Keep any branch from gaining too much power
Federalists & Antifederalists
-Federalists: supporters of Constitution [very organized]
-Antifederalists: opposers of ratification of Constitution [werent as organized]
Book [The Federalist]
-Written by Madison, Hamilton, and Jay
-Series of essays explaining and defending the Constitution
Major critiscism of Constitution
-Would give federal government too much power
Added to Constitution in 1791
Bill of Rights
Two ways American citizens protected from injustices
-Laws are to be passed
-Courts are to be run
Two kinds of liberties
-Liberty of individual
-Liberty of country
Weaknesses ofthe Articles of Confederation
-No chief executive
-Laws needed approval by nine of thirteen states
-Congress did not have the power to tax citizens [could only request tax $ from states]
-Congress did not have power to draft an army [could only request states to send men for military services]
-No national court system
-Any amendments [changes] to the Articles must be approved by all 13 states
-Congress did not have the power to collect state debts owed to federal government
-Congress did not have the power to settle disputes among states
Weaknesses ofthe Articles of Confederation
-No chief executive
-Laws needed approval by nine of thirteen states
-Congress did not have the power to tax citizens [could only request tax $ from states]
-Congress did not have power to draft an army [could only request states to send men for military services]
-No national court system
-Any amendments [changes] to the Articles must be approved by all 13 states
-Congress did not have the power to collect state debts owed to federal government
-Congress did not have the power to settle disputes among states
What is government?
Excercise of authority over an organization, state, district, or any other grouping of people
Why government is needed
Thomas Paine exaggerated that government is a necessary evil.
Natural rights
Life
Liberty
Property
How natural rights is protected
-People should make an agreement called a social contract
-Should give up some of their freedoms in exchange for protection and security
-Should consent to follow laws in exchange for protection of their natural rights [John Locke's idea]
Democracy
Government in which people rule themselves
republican government
-Citizens have to power to govern
-Citizens elect leaders to represent them and serve their interests
-Representatives are responsible for promoting the good of the entire community
How republican government should be organized in order to make sure that common welfare would be properly served
-Separate the powers
-Balance the powers
-Provide checks
Legislative =
Congress

House of Reps
Senate
Executive =
President

Cabinet
Judicial
Supreme Court

Appeals Courts

District Courts
federalism
-some powers reserved for individual states
-some powers reserved for national government
Powers delegated to national government
-Declare war
-Maintain armed forces
-Admit new states
-Regulate interstate and foreign trade
-Establish post offices
-Set standard weights and measures
-Coin money
-Establish foreign policy
-Make all laws necessary and proper for carrying out delegated powers
Powers shared by national and state governments
-Maintain law and order
-Levy taxes
-Borrow money
-Charter banks
-Establish courts
-Provide for the common welfare
Powers reserved to states
-Establish and maintain schools
-Establish local schools
-Conduct elections
-Create corporation laws
-Regulate business within the state
-Make marriage laws
-Provide for public safety
-Assume other powers not delegated to the national government or prohibited to the states