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50 Cards in this Set

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What is a life structure?
combination of statuses, roles, activities, goals, values, beliefs, and life circumstances that characterize an individual p 150
Describe the early adulthood era of development.
the first era of adulthood, spanning ages 17 through 39 (4 subcategories: Early Adult Transition, Entering the Adult World, Age 30 Transition and Settling Down period) p150
Describe the middle adulthood era of development.
the second era of adulthood, spanning the ages of 40-59 (4 subcategories: Midlife Transition, Entering Middle Adulthood, Age 50 Transistion, and Culmination of Middle Adulthood), p150
Describe the late adulthood era of development.
the third and last era of adulthood, spanning ages 60 and over p150
What is the novice phase?
term proposed by Daniel Levinson and his colleagues for the first three stages of the early adulthood era p151
What is a mentor?
someone who fosters an individual's development by believing in the person, sharing the person's dreams, and helping the person achieve those dreams p152
Who was Daniel Levinson?
he was a psychologist at Yale University who did an intensive long term study to determine the adult male developmental stages in the 1970s
Who are Irene Frieze and Esther Sales?
researchers who studied adult female development and found taht the processes for men and women are different. They suggested three phases of adult female development: leaving the family, entering the adult world, and entering the adult world again
What, according to Daniel Levinson, are the three basic eras of male adulthood? Identify their major age ranges.
early (ages 17-39) middle - (ages 40-59) and late - (ages 60 to 75+)
What, according to Daniel Levinson, are the major characteristics of the early male adult era?
early - ages 17-39, involves entering the adult world, choosing a career, establishing oneself in society and making and re-evaluating committments;
What, according to Daniel Levinson, are the major characteristics of the middle male adult era?
middle - ages 40-59, involves self-examination, reformulation of life goals, perhaps a midlife crise, realization of one's own mortality
What, according to Daniel Levinson, are the major characteristics of the late male adult era?
late - ages 60 to 75+ involves transitions
According to Irene Frieze and Esther Sales, what factors distinguishes female development from male development?
an emphasis on marriage over career, a break in employment for child rearing, and a later re-entrance into the labor force
According to Irene Frieze and Esther Sales, what are the three states of adult female development?
leaving the family, entering the adult workd, and entering the adult world again
What is the labor force?
the labor force is all individuals 16 and older who are employed in paid positions or who are seeking paid employment p157
What is a profession?
a profession is a high-status occupation that requires specialized skills obtained through formal education p157
What is the definition of unemployment?
umemployment is a situation that occurs when people do not have jobs but are actively seeking employment p157
What is the employment rate?
the employment rate is the percentage of the civilian labor force that is unemployed but actively seeking employment p157
Give three examples of how the composition of the labor force has changes.
Examples can include increases in the number of women and minorities in the labor force, a better-educated labor force, changes in the type of work people do and an increase in career changes
What effect have technological developments, such as the computer, had on work in the United State?
They have contributed significantly to the growth of the high-tech and service-producing sectors. Eight out of the ten top occupations are computer related.
How has education changed the nature of work and the labor force?
workers' education level has increased; about 90 percent of workers aged 25-64 have high school diplomas, and one third have college degrees, jobs. Most jobs require a high school dipoloma and more require degrees and specialized training
How has farming and manufacturing changed the nature of work and the labor force?
Farming and Manufacturing fell from 85% of US labor force in 1900 to 27% in 2000; most work now is in professions, office work, sales, and service jobs
How have women changed the nature of work and the labor force?
women have increased as a percentage of the total labor force; women now hold about half of all professional jobs
How have minorities changed the nature of work and the labor force?
Minorities have increased as a percentage of the total labor force; in particular Hispanics, who are the fastest growing group of American workers
What are some reasons that people give for being satisfied in their job?
income, control over their work, can us skills and talents, receive recognition and appreciation, safe workplace, flexible hours, job security, relations with co-workers
What are some reasons people say they are dissatisfied with their job?
stress, income, little chance of promotion, benefits (insurance, retirement plans)
Are most Americans satisfied with their jobs?
Yes, opinion polls and social-science research in the United States, regardless of what they do, are satisfied with their jobs.
What are some jobs that were projected to grow in the last decade?
computer jobs (computer engineers, computer support specialists, systems analysts, database administrators, etc), paralegals and legal assistants, medical and physician assistants, and social and human service assistants p161 chart
True or False?
Career changes are becoming a common occurrence among American workers.
True. Statistics indicate that the average worker will change careers from five to six times in a lifetime.
What is gerontology?
scientific study of the processes and phenomena of aging 164
What is social gerontology?
subfield of gerontology that studies the nonphysical aspects of aging p164
Describe the young-old group of older people including age range and general topics of study.
ages 65-74; issues related to the adjustment to retirement p165
Describe the middle-old group of older people.
ages 75-84; issues related to declining physical and mental functioning, dependency and death p165
Describe the old-old group of older people.
ages 85+; issues related to declining physical and mental functioning, dependency and death p165
What is Alzheimer's disease?
organic condition that results in the progressive destruction of brain cells p168
What is dependency?
shift from being an independent adult to being dependent on others for physical or financial assistance p170
Into what three groups do gerontologists organize the aged population?
young-old (65-74), middle-old (75-84), and old-old (85 years and older)
What are some challenges facing aging Americans?
challenges faced by aging Americans include the adjustment to retirement, declining physical and mental functioning, and dealing with dependency and death
What are some of the factors that influence one's adjustment to retirement?
the loss of work, economic independence, health and social networks
Briefly describe Daniel Levinson's views on adult male development.
Levinson identified three main eras of adult male development -- early, middle, and late adulthood. Each era begins with a transitional period followed by alternating stable and transitional periods.
How does adult female development differ from adult male development?
Adult female development emphasizes marriage and family over career, and child rearing often interrupts or halts career advancement.
How has the composition of the American labor force changed?
Changes include increases in the number of women and minority workers, a better-educated workforce, changes in the type of work people do (less farming & manufacturing, more sales and services), and rise in career changes
In what ways did the nature of work in the United States change in the 1900s?
During the 1900s, the majority of jobs shifted from being in faming, manufacturing and physical labor, to being in professions and service industries
What challenges and opportunities are associated with the later stages of life?
Challenges: adjusting to retirement, coping with changes in physical and mental functioning, and dealing with issues of dependency and death opportunities: freedom to pursue dreams, and start a new career
What are the main characteristics of each stage of life during the later years of adulthood?
young-old -- adjusting to retirement, middle-old and old-old -- concerns include declining physical health, dependency and death
How and why are social networks important when adjusting to retirement?
they contribute to retirees' quality of life by bolstering people's sense of identity (some of which may be tied to job)
Why have views concerning intellectual ability in older adults changed in recent years?
Recent research has show that most older adults retain their intellectual abilities throughout life.
What is a life structure?
the combination of statuses, roles, activities, goals, values, beliefs, and life circumstances that characterize a person
What is a profession?
a high-status occupation that requires specialized skills obtained through formal education
What are some examples of professions?
teacher, doctor, lawyer, accountant, etc.