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30 Cards in this Set

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organisms, such as plants, that make their own food
Autotrophs or producers
uses the sun’s energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into sugars
Photosynthesis
organisms and animals that obtain energy from the foods they consume
Heterotrophs or consumers
chemical process that uses oxygen to convert the chemical energy stored in organic molecules (glucose) into ATP (energy currency
Cellular respiration
potential energy in food or organic molecules
Chemical energy
the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of 1g of water by 1°Celsius
Calorie
one of the principal chemical compounds that living things use to store energy
ATP (adenosine triphosphate)
electron carriers pass electrons on to other carriers in a series of transfers
Electron transport chain
name that refers to all of a cells chemical processes
Metabolism
protein structures in mitochondria that act like miniature turbines and convert ADP into ATP
ATP synthases
used by cells to release energy in the absence of oxygen
Fermentation
What are the three parts of an ATP molecule?
adenine, ribose, and a triphosphate tail
Describe the ATP cycle
ATP is continuously converted to ADP as your cells do work. ADP is recycled back into ATP by adding a third phosphate group
What is the chemical equation for cellular respiration in words?
oxygen + glucose yields carbon dioxide + water
What are the three steps to cellular respiration?
glycolysis, Krebs cycle, and electron transport / ATP synthase
energy of motion
Kinetic energy
energy that is stored due to an object's position or arangement
Potential energy
type of kinetic energy in which there is random molecular motion
Thermal energy
During cellular respiration, what three molecules are produced?
ATP, carbon dioxide, and water
Explain the role of food (glucose) in both photosynthesis and cellular respiration.
Glucose is a product of photosynthesis and a reactant in cellular respiration
What is released when ATP is involved in a chemical reaction that breaks a phosphate bond?
energy (potential)
ATP provides the energy for what three main types of cellular work?
chemical work, mechanical work, and transport work
What is the source of energy for regenerating ATP from ADP?
Chemical energy from organic molecules in food.
Why does the process of cellular respiration release energy?
An atom’s positively charged nucleus exerts an electrical “pull” on the negatively charged electrons.
When an electron “falls” toward the nucleus, potential energy is released.
How does an electron transport chain result in the gradual release of energy stored in glucose?
As high-energy electrons from glucose are transferred from one electron carrier to another, a small amount of energy is released at each step.
With oxygen
Aerobic
Without oxygen
Anaerobic
Where does glycolysis occur and how much energy is produced in the process?
Glycolysis occurs in the cytoplasm of the cell. A net gain of two ATP molecules are produced during glycolysis.
During exercise, what causes muscle soreness and fatigue?
The build up of lactic acid, which is the product of fermentation in the cells.
Describe at least one example of how fermentation in microorganisms produces human foods.
Microbes transform milk into cheese or yogurt; soybeans into soy sauce; cabbage into sauerkraut