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18 Cards in this Set

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v(plain)ようにする means 'to make an effort to do s.t' or 'to make a point of doing s.t'
please try and study japanese every day.

'begin v-ing'
it was a year ago that i started studying japanese.
s1 v(stem), s2

The stem of a v(masu) form can be used in place of v(て) form to connect two sentences. This use is generally restricted to written style
they formed a team by gathering good baseball players and played games with the american team
question word + ~ても

Qusetion words (何、いつ、だれ、どこ、何度、etc.) followed by て-forms followed by も indicate 'no matter what/when/who/where/how often,' etc.
mt. fuji is beautiful no matter when we look at it.

'starting with ~; including ~'

This phrase introduces the most obvious example, as in the following examples.
in america, sports such as basketball and ice hockey, not to mention football, are popular.

~的 is a suffiz which attaches to nouns (mostly kanji cmp) and forms な adj. ~的に is an adverbial form. its meaning varies depending on the words, but in [x は y 的] it often indicates that x has a characteristic quality of y or x has s.t to do with y.
a typical japanese souvenir might be a kimono dress or a fan.

'undeniably; no doubt; by any account'
The most famous movie director in japan by any account must be akira kurosawa.

[面白い+ことに] introduces the content of what is interesting in the remainder of the sentence. any adjective or verb which expresses a speaker's emotional response can be similarly used.
to my surprise, teachers call students by their first names at american universities.
x は y くらいです

'y is about the only x'

this expression is used when U is about the only case where X holds true. X and Y are both either nouns or non phrases
college years might be the only time when the japanese can relax.

'as expected; also; again'

やっぱり is a conversational form of やはり. It is an adverb which indicates that what is being said is what is expected from our general or specific knowledge.
john kennedy was a politician. his brothers also became politicians.

This expression states a sufficient condition for attaining a desired result. さえ can be attached to a noun, a verb stem and the て-form of a verb, as is in the following:

N さえ V (ば-form):

Particles が, を, は and も are dropped when is attached. bit other particles are retained as in クラスにさえ出れば. ば is a condition form.

When さえ is attached to a noun, it emphasizes that noun. Hence (em. on N) implies one only has to take medicine and no other substance. (em. on V) places the emphasis on the action of taking medicine as opposed to other actions such as sleeping, listening to music, etc.

More information on p. 173
If you don't want to get sick, all you have to do is to exercise.

~はず, which means 'supposed to,' 'expected to,' expresses one's conjecture with some certainty. It follows noun + の, な-adj, and plain forms of verbs and い-adj.
It's Sunday today, and so banks are supposed to be closed.


丸で 【まるで】 (adv) (uk) quite; entirely; completely; at all; as if; as though; so to speak;


みたい is a colloquial form of ようだ. unlike ようだ, みたい follows bare nouns (e.g 日本人みたい) and な-adj and verbs (e.g., 安いみたい;行くみたい)
It's like a dream.

It seems difficult to find a job.

It looks like [he] is going to get married next year.


'because (of); due to'

~ため(に) follows a noun + の, -adj な-form and plain forms of い-adj and verbs. It indicates the reason or cause for the following clause. ~ため is a formal expression, and hence is used in writing or in formal situations.

It also indicates a purpose for an action (cf Lesson 5). Whether ~ため(に) is interpreted as a "purpose" or "reason" partly depends on the context. However, if ~ため(に)follows adj or a verb which indicates a state such as 分かる, 出来る, ある, etc., it always indicates a "reason." Even past tenses.
The flight was cancelled because of heavy snow.

He went to Japan because he studied Japanese.

'to have no choice but to~'

This expression means that X is not what one normally wants to do but one has no choice but to do.
When one does not have any money, one does not have any choice but to work a part-time.

The Vれる/られる form, which is homophonous to the passive form, may be used as 尊敬語 (honorific form), as in the following examples.
Professor, I hear you have written a book. When is it scheduled to be published?

'at least'

The expression is used only when there is an implication that more of s.t is desirable. So, in the example, the implication is that one wants to learn as many kanji as possible. The use of くらい makes the statement less specific in the sense that the speaker gives an item or number just as an example.
I want to learn lots of kanji, but i don't have much time. i would like to be able to read and write at least Kyouiku Kanji, though.

[xようにy] means [y so that x]. In this construction, x often contains a potential verb, negative form or stative verb, which normally can't be controlled by one's will.
I gave chocolate so that they can all enjoy it.