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46 Cards in this Set

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What is learning?
Relatively permanent influence on behavior, knowledge, and thinking skills, which comes through experience.
What are the Behavioral Approaches to learning?
A. Classical Conditioning

B. Operant Learning
Classical Conditioning Involves
ASSOCIATION ~ PAIRING

- generalization
- discrimination
- extinction
- systematic desensitization

examples: Pavlov's dog; light buzzing = hate class; mean math teacher = hate math class.

*Starts with something that doesn't have to be learned*
Generalization
Tendancy of new stimuli similar to original conditioned stimuli to produce a similar response.

example: You were afraid of one snake and now you're afraid of all snakes; you had a mean teacher for math and now you hate all math classes.
Discrimination
When an organism response to certain stimuli and not to others.

examples: Pavlov's dog salavating from a bell but not other sounds such as a whistle; having axiety for math tests but not english tests.
Extinction
Wakening of conditioned response in absense of unconditioned stimuli.

example: doing better on tests causes anxiety to subside.
Systematic Desensitization
Using classical conditioning to reduce responses.

GOAL: to associate a behavior/activity with relaxation.

example: using successive visualizations.

*counterconditioning*
What are the conditions necessary for Pavlov's dog?
- the dog has to be able to hear
- the dog has to be healthy
- the dog has to be hungry

*salavation was used because it is an uncontrolled response*
Stages for Pavlov's Dog
1st - Bell Rings; dog may perk ears but no salavation.

2nd - Dog is given food; dog salavates.

3rd - Bell is rung while dog eats food; dog salavates (didn't have to be taught to salavate "at" food)

4th - No food and bell is rung - dog salavates in response to bell.

*classical conditioning*
Operant Conditioning
Action with stimulus - behavior comes first.

example: will come for food
Thorndike's Law of Effect (1906)
Behaviors followed by positive outcomes are strengthened while behaviors followed by negative outcomes are weakened.
Behaviors followed by positive and negative outcomes
Skinner's Operant Conditioning (1938) Invloves
1) Reinforcement vs. Punishment

2) Reinforcement Schedule
There are 2!
Reinforcement vs. Punishment
*positive reinforcement: responses strengthens as a result rewarding stimulus (gain something...by virtue of the stimulus' presence).

*negative reinforcement: response strenthened as a result of removing a negative stimulus (take something away...by virtue of the stimulus' absence).

Partial Reinforcement: Reinforcement only given part of the time - behavior would stop (reinforcement schedule)

Punishment = discouraging behavior vs. negative reinforcement = soemthing has to be taken away.
strenthening/weakining stimulus
Schedules of Reinforcement
Fixed Ratio Schedule (response)

Variable Ratio Schedule

Fixed Interval Schedule (time)

Variable Interval Schedule
Fixed Ratio & Variable Ratio Schedules
Fixed: Behavior is reinforced after a set number of responses (e.g. praise only after 4 correct answers).

Variable: Behavior is reinforced after an average number of times, but on an unpredictable basis (e.g. praise after 2nd correct response, then the 5th, then the 8th).
Correct Responses
Fixed Interval & Variable Interval Schedules
Fixed: The first appropriate response after a fixed amount of time is reinforced (e.g. praise a child after 2mins. of response or a quiz every week).

Variable: Response if reinforced after a variable amount of time has elapsed (e.g. praise after 3mins, then 5mins, the 2mins. or giving pop-quizzes at uneven intervals).
Time
Define Unconditioned Stimulus
A response that is automatically produced without any prior learning.

example: food for Pavlov's dog
Define Unconditioned Response
An unlearned response that is automatically ellicited from the unconditioned stimulus.

example: salavation because of food - Pavlov's dog
Define Conditioned Stimulus
A previously neutral stimulus that ellicits a conditioned response after being associated with an unconditioned stimulus.

example: the bell - Pavlov's dog
Define Conditioned Response
A response to the conditioned stimulus produced only after the unconditioned stimulus - conditioned stimulus pairing.

Example: Dog salavating after bell is rung - Pavlov's Dog
What is Shaping
Reinforcement by using a series of small steps to get a subject to produce the ultimate desired response (rat pressing bar).
Explain Skinner's Rat
1st - the rat will hit the bar on accident and food is dispensed.

2nd - the rat will probably sit in the corner, may stare at the bar.

3rd - Using shaping the rat will eventually step on the bar to get food (always give food AFTER behavior is produced).

stimulus = food
response = bar (press)

negative reinforcement: shocking the rat = press bar and it stops.
Define Reinforcement
Anything that encourages a behavior to be repeated.
What is Applied Behavior Analysis?
Applying principles of operant learning to change human behavior.

- Increasing and Decreasing (un)desired behavior.
How can you increase desired behavior?
Make reinforcers contingent and timely (some classical conditioning because there's association).

Select the best schedule of reinforcement (generally Varied Interval is the best)

Consider Contracting (putting reinforcement contingencies in writing).

Use Negative Reinforcement effectively (make sure the unpleasant stimulus IS negative => know your students).

Use shaping and prompting.

*example: Death Roe is not necessarily contingent and timely...good for those who observe who wish to imitate behaviors however.
What is prompting?
Using cues or stimulus' before a response. In doing so it increases the likelihood a response will occur (helps guide thinking).

example: When giving an incorrect answer say "careful!"
How can you decrease undesirable behavior?
Use Differential Reinforcement

Terminate Reinforcement

Withdraw Positive Simtulus

Use Aversive Stimuli (punishment - decrease a behavior)
What is Differential Reinforcement?
Using reinforcement that is more appropriate or compatible with a child/student is doing.
Terminating Reinforcement
Withdrawing reinforcement of undesireable behavior.
How can you Remove Desired Stimuli?
Time Outs: Remove the child from the postive reinforcer.

Response Cost: Remove the positive reinforcer from the child.
What is Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory?
Social, coginition and behavior are all important factors in learning (imitation, social context, and thinking - not just behavior)
What does Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory Involve?
Cognitive: Students expecations for success.

Social: Observational

Self-Efficacy: Belief that one can master a situation and produce a positive outcome.
What did the "Bobo Doll Study" find? - Observational Learning.
There was no change in modeling when agreesion was reinforced or not reinforced.

When aggression was punished modeling was less extensive.

If someone is rewarded for the same bad behavior that was punished the behavior will continue to be repeated.

example: sister and pregnancy
What 4 processes are requried for Imitation to occur?
Attention

Retention

Production

Motivation
Attention
You have to pay attention to the behavior in order to imitate (sometimes it's what you pay attention to).
Retention
Ability to code information and keep it in your memory; it has to stay in your head a while.
Production
A person has to have the capability to reproduce a behavior.

example: we cannot imitate Michael Phelps
child crossing his legs
Motivation
Can be observed when a child decreases modeling after agressor is punished; when a child is rewarded behavior is repeated.

*reinforcers are motivators!
What Reinforcement can help with modeling?
Reward the model - giving something encourages the behavior to be repeated

Reward the Child

Instruct the child to use self-reinforcing statements (I can do it; I'll do well!)
*positive self-talk
*form of learning
Cognitive Behavior Approaches
(cognitive behavior modification)

Getting students to monitor and regulated their own behaviors.
Self-Instructional Mehthods...what are they?
Cognitive Behavior techniques aimed at teaching individuals to modify their own behavior.

example: self-talk
Define Self-Talk
Strategy that helps students turn negative reinforcing statements into positive ones (uncountered negative thinking has a way of becoming a self-fullfilling prophecy).
What is Self-Regulatory Learning?
Self-generation and self-monitoring thoughts, feelings, and behaviors in order to reach a goal.
What are some characteristics of self-regulated learners?
Set realistic goals that extend knowlege and sustain motivation.

Aware of their emotions and have strategies for managing emotions.

Periodically monitor progress toward goals.

Fine-tune and revise strategies based on their progress toward a goal - help develop strategies.

Evaluate obstacles and make the necessary adaptations.
What are some models for turning low self-regulating students into self-regulating learners?
Self-Evaluation and monitoring.

Goal setting and strategic planning.

Put a plan into action and monitor it.

Monitoring outcomes and refining strategies.

*Help students set realistic goals; help students self-monitor; IT STARTS FROM THE OUTSIDE.
*We need to create a context.
Self-Regulation is influced by what?
Modeling

Self-Efficacy

*Teachers who encourage students to self-monitor convey the message that students are responsible for their own behaviors.