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131 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
alveol/o
alveolus (air sac)
bronch/o
bronchi/o
bronchus (airway)
bronchiol/o
bronchiole (little airway)
capn/o
carb/o
carbon dioxide
laryng/o
larynx (voice box)
lob/o
lobe (a portion)
nas/o
rhin/o
nose
or/o
mouth
ox/o
oxygen
palat/o
palate
pharyng/o
pharynx (throat)
phren/o
diaphragm
pleur/o
pleura (lining of lungs)
pneum/o
pneumon/o
air or lung
pulmon/o
lung
sinus/o
sinus (cavity)
spir/o
breathing
thorac/o
pector/o
steth/o
chest
tonsill/o
tonsil
trache/o
trachea (windpipe)
-pnea
breathing
nose
structure that warms, moistens, and filters air as it enters the respiratory tract
sinuses
air-filled spaces in the skull that open into the nasal cavity
palated
the roof of the mouth
pharynx
throat; passageway for food to the esophagus and air into the larynx
nasopharynx
part of the pharynx behind the nasal passages
oropharynx
central portion of the pharynx between the roof of the mouth and the upper edge of the epiglottis
laryngopharynx
lower part of the pharynx just below the oropharynx opening into the larynx and esophagus
tonsils
oval lymphatic tissues on each side of the pharynx that tilter air to protect the body from bacterial invasion
adenoid
lymphatic tissue on the back of the pharynx behind the nose
uvula
small projection hanging form the back middle edge of the soft palate
larynx
voice box; passageway for air moving from pharynx to trachea
glottis
opening between the vocal cords in the larynx
epiglottis
a lid-like structure that covers the larynx during swallowing to prevent food from entering the airway
trachea
windpipe; passageway for air from the larynx to the area of the carina, where it splits into right and left bronchus
bronchial tree
branched airways that lead form the trachea to the microscopic air sacs called alveoli
bronchioles
progressively smaller tubular branches of the airways
alveoli
thin-walled microscopic air sacs that exchange gases
lungs
two spongy organs in the thoracic cavity enclosed by the diaphragm and rib cage
lobes
subdivisions of the lung; two on the left and three on the right
pleura
membranes enclosing the lung (visceral pleura) and lining the thoracic cavity (parietal pleura)
pleural cavity
potential space between visceral and parietal layers of the pleura
diaphragm
muscular partition that separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity and moves up and down to aid respiration
mediastinum
partition that separates the thorax into two compartments and encloses the heart, esophagus, trachea, and thymus gland
cilia
hair-like processes from the surface of epithelial cells, such as those of the bronchi
parenchyma
functional tissues of any organ, such as the tissues of the bronchioles, alveoli, ducts, and sacs that perform respiration
eupnea
normal breathing
bradypnea
slow breathing
tachypnea
fast breathing
hypopnea
shallow breathing
hyperpnea
deep breathing
dyspnea
difficulty breathing
apnea
inability to breathe
orthopnea
ability to breathe only in an upright position
Cheye-Stokes respiration
pattern of breathing characterized by a gradual increase of depth and sometimes rate to a maximum level, followed by a decrease, resulting in apnea
crackles
rales
popping sounds heard on auscultation of the lung when air enters diseased airways and alveoli
wheezes
high pitched, musical sounds heard on auscultation of the lung as air flows through a narrowed airway
stridor
a high pitched crowing sound that occurs with an obstruction in the upper airway
cyanosis
a bluish coloration of the skin caused by a deficient amount of oxygen in the blood
dysphonia
hoarseness
epistaxis
nosebleed
expectoration
coughing up and spitting out of material from the lungs
sputum
material expelled from the lungs by coughing
hemoptysis
coughing up and spitting out blood originating in the lungs
hypercapnia
hypercarbia
excessive level of carbon dioxide in the blood
hyperventilation
excessive movement of air in and out of the lungs, causing hypocapnia
hypoventiliation
deficient movement of air in and out of the lungs, causing hypercapnia
hypoxemia
deficient amount of oxygen in the blood
hypoxia
deficient amount of oxygen in tissue cells
obstructive lung disorder
condition blocking the flow of air moving out of the lungs
restrictive lung disorder
condition limiting the intake of air into the lungs
caseous necrosis
degeneration and death of tissue with a cheeselike appearance
pulmonary edema
fluid filling of the spaces around the alveoli and eventually flooding into the alveoli
pulmonary infiltrate
density on an x-ray representing the consolidation of matter within the air spaces of the lungs
rhinorrhea
thin, watery discharge from the nose (runny nose)
asthma
panting; obstructive pulmonary disease caused by a spasm of the bronchial tubes or by swelling of their mucous membrane
atelectasis
collapse of lung tissue
bronchitis
inflammation of the bronchi
bronchogenic carinoma
lung cancer
bronchospasm
constriction of bronchi caused by spasm of the peribronchial smooth muscle
bronchiectasis
abnormal dilation of the bronchi with accumulation of mucus
emphysema
obstructive pulmonary disease characterized by overexpansion of the alveoli with air and destructive changes in their walls resulting in loss of lung elasticity and gas exchange
chronic obstructive pulmonary diease
permanent, destructive pulmonary disorder that is a combination of chronic bronchitis and emphysema
laryngitis
inflammation of the larynx
laryngotracheo-bronchitis
inflammation of the upper airways with swelling that creates a funnel-shaped elongation of tissue
laryngospasm
spasm of laryngeal muscles, causing a constriction
nasal polyposis
presence of numerous polyps in the nose
pharyngitis
inflammation of the pharynx
coryza
head cold; inflammation of the nasal mucous membranes
pleural effusion
accumulation of fluid within the pleural cavity
empyema
accumulation of pus in the pleural cavity
hemothorax
blood in pleural cavity
pleuritis
inflammation of pleura
pneumoconiosis
chronic restrictive pulmonary disease resulting from prolonged inhalation of fine dusts
pneumonia
an inflammation in the lung caused by infection
pneumothorax
air in the pleural cavity caused by a puncture of the lung or chest wall
pneumohemothorax
air and blood in the pleural cavity
pneumonitis
inflammation of the lung often caused by hypersensitivity to chemicals or dusts
pulmonary embolism
occlusion in the pulmonary circulation
pulmonary tuberculosis
disease caused by the presence of Myobacterium tuberculosis in the lungs
sinusitis
inflammation of the sinuses
sleep apnea
periods of breathing cessation that occur during sleep, often causing snoring
tonsillitis
acute or chronic inflammation of the tonsils
upper respiratory infection
infectious disease of the upper respiratory tract
arterial blood gases
analysis of arterial blood to determine adequacy of lung function in the exchange of gases
pH
measure of blood acidity
PaO2
partial pressure of oxygen measuring the amount of oxygen in the blood
PaCO2
partial pressure of carbon dioxide measuring the amount of carbon dioxide in the blood
endoscopy
examination inside a body cavity with a flexible endoscope for diagnostic or treatment purposes
nasopharyngoscopy
use of a flexible endoscope to examine the nasal passages and the pharynx
auscultation
to listen
percussion
a physical examination method of tapping over the body to elicit vibrations and sounds
MRI
nonionizing image of the lungs to visualize lung lesions
tidal volume (TV)
amount of air exhaled after a normal inspiration
vital capacity (VC)
amount of air exhaled after a maximal inspiration
adenoidectomy
excision of adenoids
lobectomy
removal of a lobe of a lung
nasal polyypectomy
removal of a nasal polyp
pneumonectomy
removal of an entire lung
thoracentesis
puncture for aspiration of the chest
thoracoplasty
repair of the chest involving fixation of the ribs
thoracoscopy
endoscopic examination of the pleural cavity using a thoacoscope
thoracostomy
creation of an opening in the chest, usually to insert a tube
thoractomy
incision into the chest
tonsillectomy
excision of palatine tonsils
tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy
excision of tonsils and adenoids
tracheostomy
creation of an opening in the trachea, usually to insert a tube
tracheotomy
incision into the trachea
continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP)
a device that pumps a constance pressurized flow of air through the nasal passages
expectorant
a drug that breaks up mucus and promotes coughing
bronchodilator
a drug that dilates the muscular walls of the bronchi