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42 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
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What are the two primary treatment modalities?
surgical resection
radiotx w/ or w/o chemo
OR a combo of those two
251
Each type of treatment may affect _.
degluttion
251
small tumors are treated with
radiotx alone or
surgery alone
251
radiation tx in the oral cavity may be by implant into the gross tumor, external _ methods, or _.
beam
both
251
larger tumors in the oral cavity may be treated w/ :
combined modalities
251
organ preservations protocols
radiotx plus or minus chemotx; designed to attempt to reduce morbidity by preserving the pt's oropharyngeal structures and function
251
chemotx for head and neck cancer pt's is an adjuvant experimental treatment designed to:
attempt to control regional and metastatic disease, rather than a preimary tx designed to eradicate the tumor itself.
251
When surgery is used in the oral cavity, the general rule is that the malignant tumor must be resected along with a margine of at least _ to _ cm of normal tissue.
1.5
2.0
252
When only one structure is resected, the surgery is known as:
simple resection
252
When more than one structure is resected, the surgery is known as:
composite resection
252
What is the ONE MAJOR ruleof cancer surgery?
No ablative surgical procedure should be compromised because of the desire to maintain the patient's function.
252
Radiotx tends to _ tissue and make _ after surgery more _.
devascularize
healing
difficult
252
The full course of radiotherapy lasts for _ to _ weeks to a dose of _ to _ cGy.
5 to 6
6,000 to 7,000
252
Postoperative radiotherapy begins:
4 to 6 weeks after surgery
252
Dental extractions after radiotherapy can put the pt at risk for _ of the mandible.
osteoradionecrosis
253
osteoradionecrosis of the mandible is
a condition in which portions of the mandible become infected and gradually break from the main body of the mandible to extrude or protrude through the soft tissue
253
Tumors in the oral cavity are staged according to _ and _.
size
location
253
TNM stands for
T - tumor size
N - nodal status
M - presence or absence of metastasis
253
T1 is the _
T4 is the _
smallest
largest
253
Tumors of the oral cavity most often occur in what 7 regions?
hard palate
soft palate
base of tongue
lateral floor of mouth or lateral alveolar ridge
tonsil
anterior floor of mouth
tongue
254
A radical neck dissection removes:
the submandibular lymph nodes, the lymph nodes in the neck, and the sternocleidomastoid and omohyoid muscles; C11 is often sacrificed
256
A modified radical neck dissection generally:
spares the spinal accessory nerve
257
A tumor in the tonsil or base of tongue area is usually classified as:
in the oropharyngeal region
259
What is primary closure?
used with resection of tissue i.e. soft tissues remaining are simply pulled together and sutured
260
A flap is:
a piece of tissue that has been elevated or raised away from its normal site
260
Flaps are divided into what two parts?
local
distal
260
A local flap is
one that uses tissue in an area close to the surgical defect
260
Name two popular flaps
skin flap
myocutaneous flap
260
A skin flap consists of
skin and subcutaneous tissue that is moved from one part of the body to another
261
Skin flaps are taken from
the neck
shoulder
nasolabial fold
261
A myocutaneous flap includes:
muscle and overlying skin
261
Myocutaneous flaps are taken from
pectoralis major
platysma
trapizeus
261
What is a microvascular free tissue transfer or graft?
microsurgical techn used to transplant tissue from far parts of the body into the oral cavity with veins and arteries anastomosed or attached carefully to blood supply at the site
261
What is being used to attempt to improve a pt's postoperative function? (2)
innervated grafts
sensate flaps
262
Oral cancer pts eperience changes in:
salviary flow
speech
swallowing
263
W/radiotx, the pt experiences changes in:
swallowing
mucositis
reduced salivary flow
263
Swallowing disorders may be caused by: (2)
reduced salivary flow
intraoral sensory loss
263
When are suture lines healed sufficiently to enable aggressive exercies?
10-14 days after surgery
265
_ and _ reahabilitation is critical to the successful functioning of head and neck cancer patients.
early
active
268
the 2 most important pieces of info to understand the oral cancer pt's swallowing difficulites are:
1. the exact nature and extent of the resection that was necessary to totally remove the tumor

2. the exact nature of the reconstruction of the oral cavity
268-69
pt's w/ small surgeries limited to the tongue along with primary closure have swallowing difficulties _ in nature
temporary
269
Mucositis
sores in the mouth
274