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49 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What was the MAGNA CARTA?
"GREAT CHARTER" created in England in 1215 required the King to OBSERVE THE RIGHTS OF FREEMEN.
What were the English "COMMON LAWS"?
Traditional CUSTOMS AND LAWS based on EARLIER COURT DECISIONS.
Why were the HOUSE OF BURGESSES and the MAYFLOWER COMPACT needed in the Colonies?
1. Colonists WANTED A SAY i making laws that affected them;
2. They were FAR FROM ENGLISH GOVERNMENT and needed local rules and order.
Who had the real power in the colonies?
ENGLISH PARLIAMENT (all laws applied to colonists) and ROYAL GOVERNORS (appointed by the King).
What was BACON'S REBELLION?
The FIRST MAJOR CHALLENGE to ENGLISH AUTHORITY. A VIRGINA tobacco PLANTER; organized over 300 colonists who ATTACKED AND KILLED 300 INDIANS. Governor UNABLE TO SQUASH BACON's group. BACON TOOK CONTROL of VA. but HANGED BACON'S FOLLOWERS. King FIRED GOVERNOR BERKELEY.
What was the lasting effect of Bacon's Rebellion?
The HOUSE OF BURGESSES passed laws so NO ROYAL GOVERNOR COULD BECOME SUCH A TYRANT. Today we can IMPEACH a Governor.
When King Charles ABOLISHED the colonial ASSEMBLIES and APPOINTED WILLIAM ANDROS of the DOMINION OF NEW ENGLAND, why didn't the colonists need to rebel?
Because King Charles was OVERTHROWN by WILLIAM (of Orange) AND MARY from the Netherlands
What two things did "THE GLORIOUS REVOLUTION" make clear in England?
1. Government BASED ON LAW (not King's whims);
2. King's AUTHORITY came from PARLIAMENT (not God).
What was the English BILL OF RIGHTS?
Passed by Parliament in 1689 TO MAKE RIGHTS CLEAR.
(No taxes w/o Parliament's consent; free speech, jury trial, right to bear arms, etc.)
What were colonial governments like in the 1700's?
Each colony had:
ROYAL GOVERNOR
ELECTED ASSEMBLY
APPOINTED COUNCIL
VOTERS: white, male, 21+, Protestant, landowners
What powers did ROYAL GOVERNORS have?
VETO laws made by assemblies, DISMISS assemblies, APPOINT judges. ANSWERED to the CROWN ONLY - not responsible to colonists.
What was the ZENGER TRIAL?
ZENGER: German immigrant, owned NEW YORK WEEKLY JOURNAL that printed article critical of the Government.
WILLIAM COSBY - unethical, unfair Governor of NY.
WILLIAM MORRIS - Judge FIRED BY COSBY for criticizing him.
ANDREW HAMILTON - defended Zenger when arrested for SEDITIOUS LIBEL. Defense led to JURY NULLIFICATION.
What is JURY NULLIFICATION?
Jury finds defendent NOT GUILTY EVEN IF COMMITTED ACTS ACCUSED OF. Jury is judge of LAW AND FACTS. Led to FREEDOM OF THE PRESS.
Name the regions of Colonial America.
NEW ENGLAND Colonies
MIDDLE Colonies
SOUTHERN Colonies
BACKCOUNTRY (in each region)
Why were rice and tobacco the major products in the Southern colonies?
The warm climate.
What is a PLANTATION ECONOMY and why did it take hold in the South?
It DEPENDS ON EXPORTS and SLAVERY FOR LABOR. Rice and tobacco require LOTS OF MANPOWER to cultivate. Indians were too sick to use.
Who was WILLIAM TUCKER?
The FIRST BLACK CHILD born in America (1624).
Why did the system of INDENTURED BLACK SERVANTS change to the SLAVERY we are familiar with?
Virginian leaders/planters were CAVALIERS (like feudal lords) used to having ESTATES worked by LABORERS.
What is PRIMOGENITURE and how did it influence immigration to the southern colonies?
OLDEST child INHERITS LAND. Second and third children came to America to get land and create the type of estate culture of England.
Who was OLAUDAH EQUIANO?
African SLAVE who WROTE HIS LIFE STORY, including the horrible, cruel treatment during THE MIDDLE PASSAGE (crossing the Atlantic in a slave boat) and DANCING THE SLAVE.
How did the ELITE PLANTER CLASS come to own all of the land along the seaboard in the southern colonies?
SMALLER LANDOWNERS with just a few indentured servants COULDN'T COMPETE & gave up their land or moved West.
Why did southern plantation owners specifically want slaves from AFRICA?
The KNOWLEDGE TO GROW RICE came from AFRICA - draining swamps, building dikes, etc.
Who was ELIZ LUCAS?
Grew BEST INDIGO in the region.
Compare life as the slave of a SMALL plantation owner with a LARGE plantation owner.
Small: planter and slave worked and slept SIDE BY SIDE.
Large: slaves worked in groups of slaves, BACKBREAKING work, 14 hr days.
What were SLAVE CODES?
HARSH LAWS controlling slaves to PREVENT UPRISINGS.
Where were the traditional religions and customs of the slaves preserved?
In the SLAVE QUARTERS.
Why did fishing become so important in New England?
1. WOOD for ships was plentiful and 2. the fishing industry encouraged more and more SHIPBUILDING and therefore TRADE
What New Englanders were WHALERS?
The QUAKERS and NATTIC INDIANS on NANTUCKET
What did whalers do when they weren't at sea?
They worked as COOPERS (barrel makers)
What products did whales provide?
BLUBBER for making OIL & CANDLES and WHALEBONE for UMBRELLAS, CORSETS & HAIRBRUSHES
Describe a boy's life on Nantucket.
SCHOOL til 12, 2 years APPRENTICE to a cooper, GO TO SEA at 14.
Explain what a TRIANGULAR TRADE ROUTE is.
Carrying DIFFERENT GOODS on each of 3 LEGS of a journey. For example: 1. New England to Africa: rum; 2.Africa to West Indies to trade slaves for sugar & molasses; 3.West Indies to New England to trade sugar and molasses for making rum.
What were the NAVIGATION ACTS?
English LAWS that encouraged all trade that BENEFITTED ENGLAND at the EXPENSE OF THE COLONIES. (Colonists often ignored them and SMUGGLED goods to other places.)
Who was EDWARD TEACH?
BLACKBEARD, dreaded PIRATE who TERRORIZED SHIPPING off Virginia coast. Finally captured and beheaded.
How were the PURITAN SLAVE OWNERS different from Southern slave owners?
They treated slaves much better, gave RELIGIOUS INSTRUCTION & sometimes taught them to READ & WRITE.
Who was PHYLLIS WHEATLEY?
A famous SLAVE POET whose book of poems was published ini 1773.
What rights and freedoms did FREE BLACKS have in New England.
Became MERCHANTS, SAILORS, PRINTERS, ETC. and could OWN LAND. However NOT TREATED AS EQUAL to whites - discrimination, lowest wages.
What were women's roles in New England?
Running the HOUSEHOLD and specialized SKILLS for the community (midwives, teaching). WIDOWS & SINGLES could go into business.
Who was COTTON MATHER?
New England MINISTER who started a WITCHCRAFT PANIC in 1692. Also: led campaign for SMALLPOX VACCINATIONS.
What were the SALEM WITCH TRIALS?
19 people HANGED FOR WITCHCRAFT, 1 STONED to death.
What was the GREAT AWAKENING?
A RELIGIOUS MOVEMENT that roared through the colonies, urging people to RETURN TO THEIR FAITH.
Who were JONATHAN EDWARDS & JOHN WHITEFIELD?
LEADERS of the ministers traveled from town to town having TENT REVIVAL MEETINGS meetings.
What was the long-term effect of the Great Awakening?
A new sense of EQUALITY among people, seeing EVERYONE EQUAL IN GOD'S EYES. Began calling each other "Brother" and "Sister." Reached out to African Americans and Indians.
Why were the Middle Colonies called the BREAD BASKET COLONIES?
1. area rich in NATURAL RESOURCES; 2. settled by IMMIGRANTS from FARMING TRADITIONS in GERMANY, HOLLAND & SWITZERLAND 3. Known especially for WHEAT PRODUCTS.
What did the Pennsylvania Germans contribute to the history of the Middle Colonies?
Brought strong tradition of CRAFTSMANSHIP - GUNSMITHS, IRON WORKERS, GLASS & FURNITURE MAKERS. PIONEERS moving West in CONESTOGA WAGONS.
Why were mills so important to the colonies? What kind of mill was the most important?
Mills PROCESSED THEIR PRODUCTS - LUMBER, PAPER, ETC. Most important were GRISTMILLS that processed WHEAT PRODUCTS which were CRUCIAL to the colonists' DIET.
What made Philadelphia such a prosperous city?
SHIPBUILDING - leader of all the colonies.
What kinds improvements did Philadelphia's wealth allow it to make? Who was behind many of the improvements?
PAVED streets, FIRE department, public LIGHTING, public BUILDINGS. BENJAMIN FRANKLIN was behind much of it.
What caused the Middle Colonies to develop a CLIMATE OF TOLERANCE?
Settled by many DIFFERENT GROUPS, including Quakers and Dutch who believed in RELIGIOUS TOLERANCE. Attracted people from MANY NATIONS.