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11 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Microbes
-Bacteria
-Viruses
-Prions
-If causes diseases in humans, they are called pathogens.
Normal defense
1. Physical/Chemical Barriers (skin, saliva)
2. Nonspecific early response
3. Specific response (immune center response - kill something specific)
Bacteria
-Single Cell Organism
-Prokaryote (no nucleus)
-3 common shapes -> bacillis, coccus, spirillum
-Anatomy - plasma membrane, cell wall, bacterial flagellum, pilus, DNA (necleoid region), plasmid, etc.
-Bacterial diseases:
a. Staphylococcus
b. Clostridium Butulinum
Viruses
-Not a cell & Not alive -> much smaller
-Causes disease only inside an organism.
-Viral Structure: "Nucleic Acid in a Coat" -> outer protein capsid + inner DNA/RNA cave
-Viral Reproduction: brings everything it needs to reproduce (may also have enzymes)
a. Virus attaches to cell -> genetic material enters cell -> hijacks host -> virus relies on host's enzymes etc. for own reproduction
-"New" Viruses
a. Ebola Virus, West Nile, Avian flu
Prions
-Basically proteins -> don't know exactly what it does, but affects brain.
-"Rogue" prion = disease prion (RARE)
-Prion diseases
a. Mad cow disease = Kreutz feldt-Jakob disease
Lymphatic System
-Functions:
1. Absorb excess tissue fluid
2. Absorb fats in small intestine
3. Has lymphocytes (made, maintain, sent out) to protect against pathogens
4. Defend against pathogens
-Lymph Travel
a. Lymph capillaries (flat tip for fluid to enter; has valves)
b. Lymph vessels
c. Lymph ducts (2 - drains into big veins)
Lymphatic Organs
-Primary organs: site where lymphocytes made/mature
i.e. Bone marrow, thymus
-Secondary Organs: site where lymphocytes stored or work
i.e. Spleen, lymph nodes, nodules
-Red Bone Marrow (Primary Organ)
a. B cells made here
-Thymus (Primary Organ)
a. T cells made here
-Spleen (2nd)
a. Blood being filtered of debris and damaged RBC
-Lymph nodes (2nd)
a. occur along lymphatic vessels - lymph being filtered)
-MALT (mucosa associated lymphoid tissue - 2nd)
a. lines vagina + other places
Immunity
-Response, barriers to entry:
a. Physical Barriers = skin, mucous membranes, cilia
b. Chemical Barriers = oil, sweat, saliva, urine, secretions
c. Resident Bacteria
Inflammation
-Swelling, redness, heat, pain, loss of function
-Rest, ice, compression, elevation
-Inflammatory Response:
a. Tissue injury -> Histamine release -> increased blood flow
b. Fluid leaks out -> WBC diapedesis -> platelets -> clotting
c. Phagocytes (neutrophils & macrophages) = eat debris and bacteria
Protective Proteins: Complement
Complement = set of proteins
-Membrane Attack Complex: produces holes in the surface of the bacteria fluids then enters the bacterial cell to the point they burst.
-Interferon: proteins produced by virus-infected cells as a warning to non-infected cells in the area (virus takes over cell, while cell makes interferon -> cell dies but still warns others)
Specific Defenses
-antigen: molecule that immune system recognizes as foreign
-B cells & T cells
a. B cells: antibody mediated immunity; made in bone marrow
b. B cell receptor + specific antigen -> activated B-cell
c. Apoptosis = pre-programmed cell suicide
d. Antibody structure = light chains & heavy chains
e. Ab-Ag Reactions:
i - Ab reacts with Ag and coats completely, neutralizing it
ii - Ab coating makes it easier for Ag to be seen and engulfed
iii - Ab forms complex with Ag which attracts WBC
f. Immunoglobulin (antibody) Classes:
i - IgA (major)
ii - IgG
iii - IgD, IgE, IgM
g. T cells = made in thymus = cell mediated immunity
i - T cell receptor can't recognize antigen without help
ii - Macrophage engulfs Ag
iii - Antigen Presenting Cell (macrophage that already broke down antigen)
iv - T cell activated
h. T cell subtypes:
i. Cutotoxic T cell - binds to target cell secretes protein & signal cell