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63 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Support
Protection
Movement
Storage
Minerals and Fat
Blood cell formation
Hemapoesis
Red bone marrow
What are the functions of Skeletal system?
calcium and phosphate
What kind of minerals are in bone?
In marrow cavity
Where is the fat stored in bone tissue?
Hemapoesis
Blood cell production, which occurs in the red bone marrow after birth.
Red bone marrow
a connective tissue that produces R.B.C and W.B.C and platelets
Intercellular substance, matrix or ground substance
Mineral salts:
67%
primarily tricalcium phosphate
calcium carbinate
Collagenous fibers
33%
stroma
needed for hardening of bone
Mesenchymal Cells
Osteoprogenitor cells
Osteoblast
Osteocyte
Osteoclast
What are the cells of bone called?
Mesenchymal cell
Give rise to osteogenic cells and conn. tissue
Osteoprogenitor cells
In the periosteum; areound bone; give rise to osteoblast
Osteoblast
Secrete organic matrix "ostoid" deposits minerals of matrix
Osteocytes
Mature osteoblasts; confined to "lacunae"; maintain matrix; reduced division
Osteoclast
From fussion of many monocytes (w.b.c)
Large multinucleate cells
Reaborb bone
function in bone growth, remodeling and repair
Diaphysis
bones shaft or body; long, cylinderical, main portion of bone
Epiphyses
proximal and distal
contain red marrow
Red Marrow
Blood cells produced here; red marrow in epiphyses and flat bones
Metaphyses
Region where calcified matrix is replaced by bone
Articular cartilage
At ends of epiphyses; of hyaline cartilage; reduces friction and absorbs shock; lacks a perichondrium
Periosteum (Definition)
Surrounds the bone wherever it is not covered by articular cartilage; has osteoblasts; protect and helps mend bone; serves as ligament attachment
Periosteum (Definition in W.B.)
Outer fibrous layer
Inner fibrous layer
Outer fibrous layer
Has vessels
of dense irr. conn. tissue
Inner fibrous layer
Esp. high in osteoblasts
Medullary Cavity
space within the diaphyses that contains fatty yellow bone marrow in adults
Yellow Marrow
consists of mainly adipose cells that store triglycerides
a few blood cells
chemical energy reserve
Endosteum
lines the medullary cavity
single layer of bone forming cells (osteoblasts)
a small amount of conn. tissue
Compact bone
few spaces
external layer of all bones
bulk of diaphyses on long bones
protection and support of stress and movement
Diaphyses of long bones; thin covering over spongy bone
Compact Bone (LOCATION)
Osteon (haversian canal)
Interstital lamallae
Periosteum
Medullary cavity
Endosteum
Perforating Canals
Compact Bone (STRUCTURE)
Osteon (haversian canal)
(STRUCTURE)
Lamallae
Lacunae
Osteocyte
Canaliculi
Central canal
Lamallae
rings of hard calcified extracellular matrix
Lacunae
Btwn. the lamallae are small spaces called ___.
Osteocyte
mature bone cells
maintain metabolism
inside the Lacunae
Canaliculi
small channels
filled with extracellular fluid
Central Canal
runs longitudinally with bone
Interstitial lamallae
fragments of older osteons that have been partially destroyed during rebuilding or growth
Capillary loops
Which does NOT make up the structure compact bone?

Periosteum
Interstital Lamallae
Endosteum
Capillary loops
Perforating canals
Blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and nerves from the periosteum penetrate the compact bone
Spongy Bone (STRUCTURE)
Does NOT contain osteons
Trabeculae
Osteocytes
Lamallae
Lacunae
Canaliculi
Spongy Bone (LOCATION)
Epiphyses of long bones, short, flat, and irregular bones
Trabeculae
"little beams"
lamallae arranged in an irregular latticework of thin columns of bone
Intramembranous Occification
(osteoblasts develop if capillary blood supply adequate)
1. Mesenchymal Cells in fibrous membrane ; receive blood supply; occurs in centers of oss.
2. Mesenchymal cells form osteoprogenitor cells
3. Osteoprogenitor cells form Osteoblasts; secrete "osteoid" (organic matrix)
4. Osteoblast -Osteocyte (confined to the lacunae)
5. Matrix becomes calcified; trabeculae begin to form
6. Trabeculae fuse to form spongy bone; spaces fill with red marrow
7. Periosteum forms on periphery of spongy bone; produces compact bone
Intramembranous Occification
(LOCATION)
flat bones of skull; part of lower jaw and collar bone; fetal fontanels
Endochondral Ossification
(LOCATION)
Diaphyses of long bones; surface of epiphyses; surface of all bones (short, flat, irregular)
Endochondral Ossification
1. Mesenchymal cells migrate to the site of future bone; form condroblast
2. Chondroblasts form hyaline cartilage template of future bone
3. Nutrient artery penetrates diaphysis; marrow cavity and bone begins to develop in primary center of oss.
4. Epiphyseal arteries penetrate through epiphysis; bone development begins in epiphyses in secondary centers of oss.
Bone Growth In Length
get longer and wider
Epiphyseal plate
btwn. diaphysis and epiphyses; consists of 4 zones
Basic process
cartilage cells are present and reproduce at the epiphyseal end of the epiphyseal plate; the enlarge and die; are replaced with calified matrix at the diaphyseal end of the epiphyseal plate.
Metaphysis
region btwn. diaphysis and epiphysis where calcified matrix is replaced by bone
Epiphyseal line
means that bone growth is over
Human growth hormone
Sex hormones
Calcitonin
Parathyroid hormone
Dietary factors
Exercise
growth in bone is influenced by _____.
Appositional growth
in diameter
Osteoblasts
in periosteum; increase outside diameter of bone
Osteoclasts
in endosteum; increase inside diameter of the marrow cavity
Remodeling
ongoing replacement of old bone tissue by new bone tissue
Osteoblast
building of extracellular matrix (secretes); deposition of minerals and salts
Osteoclast
destruction of extracellular matrix; the removal of minerals and salts
hormones
diet
stress
osteoblasts
osteoclasts
Bone Replacement
Nutrient Artery
Largest artery to medullary cavity in diaphysis; extends into haversian canals
Nutrient foramen
Nutrient foramen
The hole where the artery goes through
Epiphyseal arteries
Penetrates epiphyses
Periosteal arteries
Enter volksman's canals; at right angles to long axis of bone
Nerves
Vasomotor nerves
Sensory nerves
Vasomotor nerves
constriction of vessel
Sensory nerves
Nerve that sends impulses to your brain that say "that hurts"; it senses that the body is in pain.