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110 Cards in this Set

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kidneys
two bean-shaped organs...to remove waste products from the blood & to aid in maintaining water & electrolyte balances
nephron
urine-producing microscopic structure; approx 1 mil nephrons are located in each kidney
glomerulus
cluster of capillaries at the entrance of the nephron;the process of filtering the blood, thereby forming urine, begins here
renal pelvis
funnel-shaped reservoir that collects the urine and passes it to the ureter
hilum
indentation on the medial side of the kidney where the ureter leaves the kidney
ureters
two slender tubes, approx 10 to 13 in long, that receive the urine from the kidneys and carry it to the post. portion of bladder
urinary bladder
muscular, hollow organ that temporarily holds the urine.
urethra
lowest part of the urinary tract, thru which the urine passes from the urinary bladder to the outside of the body
urinary meatus
opening through which the urine passes to the outside
cystitis
inflammation of the bladder
cystocele
protrusion of the bladder
cystolith
stone in the bladder
glomerulonephritis
inflammation of the glomeruli of the kidney
hydronephrosis
abnormal condition of water in the kidney (distension of the renal pelvis w/urine because of an obstruction)
nephritis
inflammation of a kidney
nephroblastoma
kidney tumor containing developing cell (malignant tumor)(also called Wilms tumor)
nephrohypertrophy
excessive development of the kidney (increase in size)
nephrolithiasis
condition of stone(s) in the kidney
nephroma
tumor of the kidney
nephromegaly
enlargement of a kidney
nephroptosis
drooping kidney
pyelitis
inflammation of the renal pelvis
pyelonephritis
inflammation of the renal pelvis and the kidney
uremia
condition of urine in the blood
ureteritis
inflammation of a ureter
ureterocele
protrusion of a ureter
ureterolithiasis
condition of stones in the ureters
ureterostenosis
narrowing of the ureter
urethrocystitis
inflammation of the urethra and the bladder
epispadias
congenital defect in which the urinary meatus is located on the upper surface of the penis
hypospadias
congenital defect in which the urinary meatus is located on the underside of the penis; a similar defect can occur in the female
polycystic kidney disease
condition in which the kidney contains many cysts and is enlarged
renal calculi
stones in the kidney
renal hypertension
elevated blood pressure resulting from kidney disease
sepsis (septicemia)
a condition in which pathogenic microorganisms, usually bacteria, enter the bloodstream, causing a systemic inflammatory response to the infection
urinary retention
abnormal accumulation of urine in the bladder because of an inability to urinate
urinary suppression
sudden stoppage of urine formation
urinary tract infection (UTI)
infection of one or more organs of the urinary tract
cystectomy
excision of the bladder
cystolithotomy
incision of the bladder to remove a stone
cystorrhaphy
suturing the bladder
cystostomy
creating an artificial opening into the bladder
cystotomy or vesicotomy
incision of the bladder
lithotripsy
surgical crushing of a stone
meatotomy
incision of the meatus
nephrectomy
excision of a kidney
nephrolysis
separating the kidney (from other body structures)
nephropexy
surgical fixation of the kidney
nephropyelolithotomy
incision throughtthe kidney to the renal pelvis to remove a stone
nephrostomy
creation of an artificial opening into the kidney
pyelolithotomy
incision of the renal pelvis to remove a stone
pyeloplasty
surgical repair of the renal pelvis
ureterectomy
excision of a ureter
ureterostomy
creation of an artificial opening into the ureter
urethroplasty
surgical repair of the urethra
vesicourethral suspension
suspension pertaining to the bladder urethra
extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL)
a noninvasive tx for removal of kidney or ureteral stone. Uses ultrasound & fluoroscopic imaging, shock waves are fired at it; shock wave lithotripsy
fulguration
destruction of living tissue w/an electric spark
renal transplant
surgical implantation of a donor kidney to replace a nonfunctioning kidney
cystogram
x-ray image of the bladder
cystography
x-ray imaging of the bladder
intravenous urogram (IVU)
x-ray image of the urinary tract (also called intravenous pyelogram)
nephrogram
x-ray image of the kidney
nephrography
x-ray imaging of the kidney
nephrosonography
process of recording the kidney using sound
nephrotomogram
x-ray image of the kidney (sectional)
renogram
(graphic) record of the kidney
retrograde urogram
x-ray image of the urinary tract w/contrast medium instilled thru urethral catheters by a cystoscope
voiding cystourethrography
x-ray imaging of the bladder and the urethra. radiopaque dye is instilled in the bladder; x-ray images are taken of the bladder & during urination of the dye
cystoscope
instrument used for visual examination of the bladder
cystoscopy
visual examination of the bladder
meatoscope
instrument used for visual examination of the meatus
meatoscopy
visual examination of the meatus
nephroscopy
visual examination of the kidney
urethroscope
instrument used for visual examination of the urethra
urinometer
instrument used to measure (the specific gravity of) urine
KUB (kidney, ureter, bladder)
a simple x-ray image of the abdomen.
blood urea nitrogen (BUN)
a blood test that measures the amountof urea in the blood. Used to detemine kidney function
creatinine
a blood test that measures the amount of creatinine in the blood.
specific gravity (SG)
a test performed on a urine specimen to measure the concentrating or diluting ability of the kidneys
urinalysis
multiple routine tests performed on a urine specimen
albuminuria
albumin in the urine (albumin is an important protein in the blood, but when found in the urine it indicates a kidney problem)
anuria
absence of urine
azotemia
urea and nitrogenous substances in the blood
diuresis
condition of urine passing through increased excretion of urine)
dysuria
difficult or painful urination
glycosuria
sugar in the urine
hematuria
blood in the urine
meatal
pertaining to the meatus
nephrologist
aphysician who studies and treats diseases of the kidney
nephrology
study of the kidney
nocturia
night urination
oliguria
scanty urine (amount)
polyuria
much (excessive) urine
pyuria
pus in the urine
urinary
pertaining to urine
urologist
a physician who studies and treats diseases of the urinary tract
urology
study of the urinary tract
catheter (cath)
flexible, tubelike device, such as a urinary catheter, for withdrawing or instilling fluids
distended
stretched out
diruretic
agent that increases the formation and excretion of urine
enuresis
involuntary urination (bed-wetting)
hemodialysis (HD)
procedure for removing impurities from the blood because of an inability of the kidneys to do so
incontinence
inability to control bladder and/or bowels
micturate

void
to urinate or void

to empty or evacuate waste material, especially urine
peritoneal dialysis
procedure for removing toxic wastes when the kidney is unable to do so; the peritoneal cavity is used as the receptacle for the fluid used in the dialysis
stricture
abnormal narrowing, such as a urethral stricture
urinal
receptacle for urine
urinary catheterization
passage of a catheter into the urinary bladder to withdraw urine
urodynamics
pertaining to the force and flow of urine within the urinary tract