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94 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Physical device that takes data as an imput, transforms the data by executing stored instructions, and outputs information to a number of devices.
a binary digit representing the smallet unit of data in a computer system. It can only have one of two states, representing 0 or 1.
Area of the computer system that manipulates symbols, numbers, and letters,and controls the other parts of the computer system.
central processing unit (cpu)
Part of the computer that temporarily stores program instructions and data being used by the instructions.
promary storage
Component of the CPU that performs the computer's principal logic and arithmetic operations.
aithmetic-logic unit (ALU)
Component of the CPU that controls and coordinated the other parts of the computer system.
control unit
Series of operations required to process a single machine instruction.
machine cycle
Primary storage of data or program instructions that can directly access any randomly chosen location in the same amount of time.
RAM (random access memory)
Semiconductor memory chips that contain program instructions. These chips can only be read from, they connot be written to.
ROM (read-only memory)
Very large-scale integrated circuit technology that integrates the computer's memory, logic, and control on a single chip.
A measure of cycle speed, or the pacing of events in a computer; one megahertz equals one milion cycles per second.
Technology used to enhance the speed of microprocessors by embedding only the most frequently used instructions on a chip.
reduced instruction set computing (RISC)
Type of processing in which more than one instruction can be processed at a time by breaking down a problem into smaller parts and processing them simultaneously with multiple processors.
parallel processing
Computers that use hundreds or thouands of processing chips to attack large computing problems simultaneously.
massively parallel computers
Relatively long-term, nonvolatile sotrage of data outside the CPU and primary storage.
secondary storage
A secondary storage medium in which data are stored by means of magnetized spots on a hard or floppy disk.
magnetic disk
Magnetic disk resembkling a thin metallic platter; used in large computer sstems and in most PCs.
hard disk
Removable manetic disk storage primarily used with PCs.
floppy disk
Read-only optical disk storage, reference, and database aplications with massive amounts of unchaning data and for multimedia.
CD-ROM (compact disk read-only memory)
Optical disk storage that can be rewritten many times by users.
CD-RW (CD-ReWritable)
High-capacity optical storage medium that can store full-lenght videos and large amounts of data.
digital video disk (DVD)
Inexpensive, older secondary-storage medium in which larbge volumes of information are stored sequentially by means of magnetized and nonmagnetized spots on tape.
magnetic tape
Attaching high-speed RAID storage devices to a network so that the devices in the network can access these storage decices through a specialized server dedicated to file service and storage.
network-attached storage (NAS)
A high-speed network dedicated to strorage that connects different kinds of storage devices, such as tape libraries and disk arrays so they can be shared by multiple servers.
storage area network (SAN)
Technology using tiny tags with embedded microchips containing data about an item and its location to transmit shot-distance radio signals to special
RFID readers that then pass the data on to a computer for processing.
radio-frequency identification (RFID)
A method of collecting and processing data in whih transactions are accumulated and stored until a specified time when it is convenient or necessary to process them as a group
batch processing
A method of collecting and processing data in which transactions are entered directly into the computer system and processed immediately.
online processing
The integration of two or more types of media, such as test, graphics, sound, voice, full-motion video, or animation, into a computer-based application.
Techonlogy for transferring data so that they can be processed as a steady and continuous stream.
streaming technology
Compression standard that can compress audio files for transfer over the Internet with virtually no loss in quality.
Largest catagory of computer, used for major business processing.
Middle-size computer that is capable of supporting the computing needs of smallerorganizations or of managing networks of other computers.
midrange computer
Middle-range computer in systems for universities, factories, ofr research laboratories.
Computer specifically optimized to provide software and other resources to other computers over a network.
Large group of servers maintained by a commercial vendor and made available to subscribers for electronic commerce and other activities requiring heavy use of servers.
server farm
Small desktop or portable computer.
personal computer (PC)
Desktop computer with powerful graphics and mathematical capabilities and the ability to perform several complicated tasks at once.
Highly sophisticated an powerful computer that can perform very complex computations extremely reapidly.
The distribution fo computer processing work among multiple computers linked by a communication network.
distributed processing
Processing that is accomplished by one large central computer.
centralized processing
A model for computing that splits processing beween "clients" and "servers" on a network. assigning functions to the machine nost able to perform function.
client/server computing
The user point of entry for the required function in client/server computing. Normally a desktop computer, workstation, or laptop computer.
The process of tranferring applications from large computers to smaller ones.
Simplified desktop computer that does not store software programs or data permanently. Users download whatever software or data they need forom a central computer over the Internet or an organization's own internal network.
network computer (NC)
Form of distributed processing that links computers via the Internet or private networks so that they cna share dat or processing tasks.
peer-to-peer computing
Applying the resources of many computers in a network to a single problem
grid computing
The system software that manages and controls the activities of the computer.
operating system
Program instructions written in a high-level language that must be translated into machine language to be executed by the computer
source code
Special system software that translates a high-level language into machine language for execution by the computer.
The part of an operating system users interact with that uses graphic icons and the comuter mouse to issue commands and make selections.
graphical user interface (GUI)
Powerful Windows operating system that provides reliability, robustness, and ease of use for both corporate and home PC users.
windows XP
Earlier version of the Windows operating system that is closely integrated with the Internet.
windows 98`
Windows operating system for high-performance PCs and network servers. Supports networking, multitasking, multiprocessing, and Internet services.
windows 2000
Most recent Windows operating system for servers
Windows Server 2003
Operating system for all types of computers, which is machine independent and supports multiuser processing, multitasking, and networking. Used in high-end workstations and servers.
Reliable and compactly designed operating system that is an offshoot of UNIX and that can run on many different hardware platforms and is availabel free or at very low cost. Used as alternative to UNIX and Windows NT.
Software that provides free access to its program code, allowing users to modify the program code to make improvements.
open-source software
A programming language consisting of the 1s and 0s of binary code.
machine language
Programming language for business applications tht can process large data files with alphanumeric characters.
COBOL (COmmonon Business Oriented Language)
A powerful programming language with tight control and efficiency of execution, portable across different microprocessors and used primarily with PCs.
Object-oriented version of the C programming language.
Widely used visual programming tool and enviroment for creating applications that run on Microsoft Windows.
Visual Basic
The constuction of software programs by selection and arranging graphic or iconic elements rereesentin sections of program code.
visual programming
A programming language that can be employed directly by end users or less-skilled programmers to develop computer applications more rapidly than conventional programming languages.
fourth-generation language
Nonprocedural language that enables users to communicate with the computer using conversational commands resembling human speech.
natural language
Software tool that provides immediate online answers to requests for information that are not predefined.
query language
An approach to software development that combines data and procedures ingto a single object.
object-oriented programming
Programming Language that can deliver only the software functionality needed for a particular task, such as a small applet downloaded from a network, can run on any computer and operating system.
Page description language for creating Web pages and other hypermedia documents.
hypertext markup language (HTML)
General-purpose language that decribes the structure of a document and support links to multiple documents, allowing data to be manipulted by the computer. Used for both Web and non-Web applications.
XML (eXtensible Markup Language)
Hybrid fo HTML and XML that provides more flexibility than HTML
XHTML (Extensibel Hypertext Markup Language)
A prewritten, precoded, commercially availabel set of programs that eliminates the need to write software programs for certain functions.
software package
Software for electronically creating, edition, formatting,and printing documents.
word processing software
Doftware for producing professional quality documents with capabilites for design, layout, and work with graphics
desktop publishing software
Software displaying data in a grid of colums and rows, cpaable of easily recalculating numerical data
Software used for creating and manipulating lists, crating files and databases to store data, and combining information for reports.
data management software
Software to create professional-quality graphics presentiations that can incorporate charts, sound, andimation, photos,and video clips.
presentation graphics
A software package that combines two or more applications, such as word processing and spread sheets, providing for easy transfer of data between them.
integrated software package
Integrated desktop productivity software suites with capabilities for supporting collaborative work on the Web or incorporating information form the Web into documenments.
Office 2000, Office XP, and Office 2003
The computer-to-computer exchange of messages.
electronic mail (e-mail)
An easy-to-use software tool for accessing the WWW and the Internet.
Web browser
Software that provides functions and services that support the collaborative activities of workgroups
A system that has been in existence for a long time and that continues to be used to avoid the high cost of replacing or redesigning it.
legacy system
Software that connects two disparate applications, allowing them to communicate with each other and to exchange data.
Software that works with specific software platforms to tie together multiple applications to suport enterprise intergration.
enterprise application intergration (EAI) software
Set of universal standards using Internet technology for integrating different applications from different sources without time-consuming custom coding. Used for linking systems of different organizations or for linking disparate systems within the same organization.
Web services
Software that manages requests for Web pages on the computer where thay are stored and that delivers the page to the user's computer.
Web server
Software in a mult-tiered network that provides the business logic for handlingf all application operations between a user and an organization's back-end business systems.
application server
The process of predicting when a computer hardware system becomes saturated to ensure that adequate computing resources are available for work of different priorities and that the firm has enough computing power for its current and future needs.
capacity planning
The ability of a computer, product, or system to expand to serve a larger number of users without breaking down.
Designates the total cost of owning technology resources, including initial purchase costs, the cost of hardware and software upgrades, maintenance, technical support, and trainging.
total cost of owenership (TCO)
Third-party provider that orents out storage space to subscribers over the Web, allowing customers to store and access their data without having to purchase and maintain their own storage technology.
storage service provider (SSP)
Company providing software that can be rented by other companies over the Web or a private network.
application service provider (ASP)
Model of computing in which companies pay only for the information technology resources they actually see during a specified time period. Also called on-demand computing or usage-based pricing.
utility comuting