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21 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
what is an antiemetic agent?
drugs used o relieve nausea and vomiting
what are the 6 categories of antiemetics?
anticholinergic agents
antihistimine agents
neuroleptic agents
prokinentic agents
seretonin blockers
tetrahydrocannabinoids
what do anticholinergics do?
bind and bloch acetycholine receptors on the vestibular cochlea which are located in the labrythinth(inner ear)
what do antihistamines do?
work very similiar to the way that anticholinergenics work. they inhibit ach by binding to the H1 receptors which prevents cholinergenic stimulation
what do nuroleptic agents do?
prevent nausea and vomiting by blocking dopamine receptors on the ctz
what do prokinentic agents do?
primary action is to stimulate peristalsis in the GI tract.
what do seretonin blockers do?
work by blocking seretonin receptors located in the gi tract, ctz, and vc
what do tetrahydrocannabinoids do?
thc is the major psychoactive substance in marijuana. it has inhibitory effects on the reticular formation, thalamus, and cerebral cortex. these effects cause a an alteration in mood and the bodies perception of its surroundings, which may be benificial in relieving nausea and vomiting
what indications are anticholinergic agents used for?
motion sickness
secretion reduction b/surgery
nausea/vomiting
what indications are antihistimine agents used for?
motion sickness
nonproductive cough
sedation
rhinitis
allergy symtoms
nausea/vomiting
what indications are neuroleptic agents used for?
phychotic disorders
intractible hiccups
nausea/vomiting
what indications are seretonin blockers used for?
nausea and vomiting associated with cancer chemo
postoperative nausea/vomiting
what indications are prokinetic agents used for?
delayed gastic emptying
gastroesophageal reflux
nausea/vomiting
what indications are tetrahydrocannabinoids used for?
nausea/vomiting asso with chemo
anorexia associated with weight/loss in AIDS patients
anticholinergics side effects:
dizziness/drowsiness/disorientation

blurred vision/dialated pupils/ dry mouth

difficult urination/constipation

rash/erythema
antihistimines side effects:
dizziness/drowsiness/confusio

blurred vission/dilated puplis/ dry mouth

urinary retention
neuroleptic side effects:
orthostatic hypotension/tachycardia

headache/pseudoparkinssonism
akathisis/dystonia

blurred vision/dry eyes

urinary retention

dry mouth/nausea/vomiting/anorexia/constipation
prokinetic side effects:
hypotension/tachycardia

sedation/fatigue/restlessness/headache/dystonia

drymouth/nausea/vomiting/diarrhea
seretonin blocker side effects:
headache

diarrhea/ transient increased ast and alt levels

rash/bronchospasm
tetrahydrocannabinoids side effects:
drowsiness/dizziness/anxiety
confusion/euphoria

visual disturbance

dry mouth
what is scopolamine
(TRANSDERM-SCOP
ANTICHOLINERGIC
PRIMARY ANTIEMETIC USED
(effects vestibular nuclei in inner ear and represents area of brain that controls balance. works by blocking the binding of ach to cholinergic receptors in this region. corrects inbalance between ach and norepinephrine)
USED FOR:nause/vomiting ass with motion sickness
ROUTE:72 hour transderma patch, tablet/injection, eyes
*put patch behind ear*

CONTRAINDICATIONS: GLAUCOMA