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63 Cards in this Set

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Which one of the following states does an Internet protocol not have to reach before it becomes a standard?
A. Informational
B. Draft
C. Proposed
D. Experimental
A. Informational.
The informational state is normally used for protocols that were developed outside of the IETF procedures, but are listed for the benefit of the Internet community. Standard protocols must pass through the experimental, proposed, and draft stages before they become standards.
The Internet layer of the Internet architecture model performs which one of the following tasks?
A. Transmits datagrams over the attached network.
B. Addresses and routes packets on TCP/IP.
C. Accepts Application-layer data and provides the flow of information between hosts.
D. Interacts with the Transport-layer protocols to present data.
B. The Internet layer corresponds with the Network layer (Layer 3) of the OSI reference model. (Read for more)
At which layer of the Internet architecture is the network interface card?
A. Application layer
B. Transport layer
C. Internet layer
D. Network access layer.
D. The NIC works at the Network Access layer. It sends and receives network signals across the transmission medium.
Which one of the following protocols is used by the "ping" command to obtain and report network status information?
A. IGMP
B. ICMP
C. IP
D. TCP
B. Internet Control Message Protocol provides troubleshooting.
Address Resolution Protocol is used at which one of the following Internet architecture layers?
A. Network Access layer
B. Application layer
C. Transport layer
D. Internet layer.
D. ARP is used to translate IP addresses to physical addresses, such as MAC addresses. It operates at the Internet layyer of the Internet architecture.
Which one of the following protocols is used for multicasting?
A. Reverse Address Resolution Protocol
B. Internet Group Management Protocol
C. Address Resolution Protocol
D. Internet Message Access Protocol
B. Internet Control MEssage Protocol provides troubleshooting information for Internet packets, including response time and time to live.
Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) is used at which one of the following Internet architecture layers?
A. Network Access layer
B. Application layer
C. Transport layer
D. Internet layer
D. ARP is used to translate IP addresses to physical addresses, such as MAC addresses. It operates at the Internet layer of the Internet architecture.
Which one of the following protocols is used for multicasting?
A. Reverse address Resolution Protocol
B. Internet Group Management Protocol
C. Address Resolution Protocol
D. Internet Message Access Protocol
B. IGMP is used by a host to tell its router that the host will accept multicast messages.
Which router protocol is sensitive to such criteria as available bandwidth and security?
A. Open Shortest Path First (OSPF)
B. Routing Information Protocol (RIP)
C. File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
D. Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)
A. OSPF is designed to consider bandwidth, authentication, load balancing, and other factors.
Lindsey has connected two computers on the same physical network. What kind of routing is performed when these computers communicate?
A. Static
B. Indirect
C. Direct
D. Dynamic
C. This is an example of direct routing.
Application layer
The application layer of the Internet architecture corresponds to the Application and Presentation layers, Layers 7 and 6 of the OSI reference model.

The application layer incorporates the functionality of the Internet client, including the application programs and operating systems, which presents data that the user has requested.
BOOTP (BOOTstrap protocol)
BOOTP provides a method for diskless workstations and X terminals to determine their IP addresses.
broadcast addresses
Broadcast addresses send messages to all network hosts, and are used only as destination addresses.

Network and/or host IP address portions cannot be the broadcast address 255
default gateway
If your computer calculates that a destination address is remote, your computer will send the packet to the default gateway, which is the local computer's IP address (usually a router). The router will send the packet to the remote network.
demultiplexing
When the receiving computer receives a packet, it strips off the headers and trailers at each OSI/RM layer. Demultiplexing is the technical term for this process.
direct routing
If two computers on the same physical network need to communicate, the packets do not need a router, because they are on the same local network.

The sending entity encapsulates the packet in an Ethernet frame, binds the destination Internet address to an Ethernet address and transmits the resulting frame directly to its destination.
indirect routing
If two computers that are not on the same physical network need to communicate, they must send the IP packet to a router for delivery.

Whenever a router is involved in a communication, the activity is considered indirect routing.
draft
One of four major level of maturity for protocols.
These protocols are being considered by the IESG as potential Internet standards.
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
(DHCP)
DHCP is based on BOOTP. It is designed to assign Internet addresses to nodes on a TCP/IP network during intialization.

Saves administrators a great deal of time because client systems do not require manual TCP/IP configuration.
dynamic router
Communicates with other dynamic routers to calculate routes automatically using routing protocols such as Routing Information Protocol and Open Shortest Path First.
Dynamic routers can exchange information of known networks. When a route changes, the routers automatically update themselves by recalculating routes.
end-to-end layer
Also known as the Transport layer of the Internet Architecture, also known as the host-to-host layer, or source-to-destination layer. Corresponds to the Session and Transport layers, the fifth and fourth layers of the OSI model.


It accepts Application-layer data and requests, and provide the flow of information bewtween two hosts using two different transport protocols.
ephemeral (short-lived or transitional) port numbers
Unique port numbers typically assigned to client processes.
experimental
One of four major levels of maturity for protocols. These are protocols that should only be used in laboratory situations. They are not intended for operation on systems other than those participating in the experiment, because the experimental protocols may interfere with draft and standard protocols that are used on the net.
full standards
Another name for standard protocols. There are only two types: those that apply to the entire Internet, and those that apply only to certain networks.
historic
Protocols that have been replaced by more recent ones or never received enough interest to develop.
hop
Part of the journey in the routing process.
When a packet arrives at the router, the router examines the packet's destination network, then checks its own routing information table. It determines the next router to which to send the packet, and forwards the packet to that router.
host-to-host layer
Another name for the Transport layer.
Internet architecture
Similar to other networking models, the Internet architecture divides protocols into layers. It consists of four layers, and each one of the four layers coincides with one or two layers in the OSI/RM.

The four layers are: Application, Transport, Internet, Network Access.
Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP)
ICMP is the troubleshooting protocol of TCP/IP. It allows Internet hosts and gateways to report errors through ICMP messages that are sent to network users. If a problem occurs on a TCP/IP networkm ab ICMP message will probably be generated.
Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP)
Used for multicasting, in which one source sends a message to a group of subscribers who belong to a multicast group.
Mailing list, videoconference.
Internet layer
Responsible for addressing and routing packets on TCP/IP networks. The following protocols are used at the Internet layer:
IP, ARP, ICMP, IGMP.
Corresponds to the Network layer, Layer 3 of the OSI/RM.
loopback
The loopback address cannot be used as an Internet address. This address allows a client and a server on the same host to communicate with each other. Also used for testing and troubleshooting a computer's Internet connection.
net mask
A 32-bit number (similar to an IP address) with a one-to-one correspondence between each of the 32 bits in the Internet address. It serves two purposes:
- Distinguish the network and host portions of an IP address.
- Specify whether a destination address is local or remote.
Tells the system which bits of the Internet address should be interpreted as the network, subnetwork, an dhost addresses.
netstat
The netstat command displays the contents of various network-related data structures, such as the state of sockets.
Network Access Layer
Accepts the higher-layer packets and transmits them over the attached network, handling all the hardware details of placing the information on the network media.

Consists of three elements:
- The operating system's device driver
- The corresponding network interface card (NIC)
- The physical connections
Corresponds to the Physical and Data Link layers, the first and second layers of the OSI reference model.
Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)
An organization of network designers, operators, vendors, and researchers concerned with the evolution of the Internet architecture and the smooth operation of the Internet.
network analyzers
Allow network administrators to analyze data traversing a network. The data is "captured" by the network analyzer as it is transmitted across the network. Once captured, the data can be closely studied.
OSPF (open shortest path first)
Routing protocol is an interior gateway that overcomes many of RIP's shortcomings. It has several practical features that make routing faster and more reliable.

Routing table updates
Various types of service routing
Load balancing
Network areas
Authenticated exchanges
Defined route support
ping
Stands for Packet Internet Groper-- tests connectivity between source and destination systems, by sending a small number of packets using ICMP.
port number
The Transport layer determines which service the packet is using by examining the packet's destination port number.
Process layer
Another word for the Application layer.
proposed
Protocols that may be considered for future standardization.
registered port numbers
range from 1024-65535 and are considered non-privileged. any process can use them.
requests for comments
Published documents of interest to the Internet community, written by individuals or orgs. presenting the topics.
reserved port numbers
Another name for well-known port numbers, that range from 1-1023 and are controlled by ICANN.
Reverse Address Resolution Protocol (RARP)
Performs the reverse function of ARP. It uses a node's hardware address to request an IP address. Generally used for diskless workstations and X terminals.
Routing
An extremely important function of IP. It is the process of choosing a network path over which to send packets.
router
The device that performs the task of routing and forwards packets from one physical network to another.
routing information protocol
Commonly implemented on small to medium sized LANs. It maintains only the best route to a destination. Old route information is replaced by new route information, causing network topology changes that are reflected in routing update messages.
routing information table
Database maintained by a router. The table contains the location of all networks in relation to the router's location. When a packet arrives at the router, the router examines the packet's destination network, then checks its own routing information table. It determines the next router to which to send the packet, and forwards the packet to that router.
routing protocols
Determines how routers share information and how they report routing changes to each other. Routing protocols enable networks to dynamically change without the need to enter static routing table entries for each adjustment.
Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)
SNMP is used for managing TCP/IP networks. Also offers low resource reqs, portability, and wide acceptance.
static routers
Contain routing information tables that must be built and updated manually. Used within network segments in situations where the network nodes are permanently installed and always operating-- for example, a server room.
Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP)
Used for initializing diskless systems. It works with BOOTstrap (BOOTP) protocol. Simple and small, can be embedded in ROM.
winipcfg
The winipcfg command is used to determine your network card's IP configuration and Ethernet address.
working groups
Committees of technical experts who discuss and refine proposed, draft, and fill standards.
socket
A socket is the end point of a connection (either side), which usually includes the TCP or UDP port used and the IP address.
source-to-destination layer
Another name for the Transport layer, which accepts the Application-layer data and requests and provides the flow of information between two hosts using TCP or UDP.
Class A
Typically use the first byte for the network portion and the last three bytes for the host portion. Class A addresses range from 0.0.0.0 to 127.255.255.255.
The first byte can range from 1 to 126. 0 is a special-case source address and 127 is a reserved loopback address.
Class B
Typically use the first two bytes for the network portion and the last two bytes for the host portion. Range from 128.0.0.0 to 191.255.255.255.

First byte can range from 128-191. Provides the potential for 16.384 networks with up to 65.534 hosts each.
Class C
Typically use the first three bytes for the network portion and the last byte for the host portion. Ranges from 192.0.0.0 to 223.255.255.255.

The first byte can range from 192-223. Class C addresses provide the potential for 2,097,152 networks with up to 254 hosts each.
Class D
Class D addresses support multicasting. With multicasting, a packet is targeted to a group that is identified by a network address only. No host portion exists in the address. The first byte can range from 224 to 239.
Class E
Class E addresses are reserved for future use. The first byte can range from 240-247.