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17 Cards in this Set

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peer groups
groups of individuals of approximately the same age
age grading
the process of grouping individuals within social institutions on the basis of age.
baby boom
the period following WWII, during which the number of infants born was extremely large.
particularistic norms
guidelines for behavior that vary from one individual to another; more commonly found in less industrialized societies.
universalistic norms
guidelines for behavior that apply to all members of a community; more common in industrialized societies.
sex cleavage
the separation of boys and girls into different cliques, common during late childhood and early adolescence.
cliques
small, tightly knit groups of between 2 and 12 friends, generally of the same sex and age.
crowds
large, loosely organized groups of young people, composed of several cliques and typically organized around a common shared activity.
participant observation
a research technique in which the researcher "infiltrates" a group of individuals in order to study their behavior and relationships.
ethnography
a type of research in which individuals are observed in their natural settings.
reference groups
a group against which an individual compares him- or herself.
gangs
organized peer groups of antisocial individuals.
iatrogenic effects
unintended adverse consequences of a treatment or intervention.
instrumental aggression
aggressive behavior that is deliberate and planned.
reactive aggression
aggressive behavior that is unplanned and impulsive.
relational aggression
acts intended to harm another through the manipulation of his or her relationships with others, as in malicious gossip.
hostile attributional bias
the tendency to interpret ambiguous interactions with others as delierately hostile.