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26 Cards in this Set

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prophase 1
condensation of chromosomes into threads, homologous pairs, crossing over, homologs seperate at centromeres chiasmata, nuclear membrane breakdown.
Metaphase
homologous pairs line up, metaphase plate
Anaphase 1
homologous pairs seperate, no centromeric division
Telophase 1
cytokinesis/ 2 cells
chromosomal reduction
tetrads seperate, between telophase and Meiosis 1
Interkinesis
no further synthesis of DNA, resting stage
Prophase II
No synapsis , chromosomes condense, nuclear membrane breakdown
Metaphase II
Chromosomes line up on metaphase plate
Anaphase II
Chromosomes seperate to poles, centromere divides
Telophase II
cytokinesis, four cells (half chromosome number), nuclear membrane reforms
Equational cytoplasmic division
chromatids seperate,
Which of the following is NOT correct about meiosis?
A) Meiosis produces haploid gametes from diploid cells
B) Meiosis has one reductional division and two cytoplasmic divisions
C) Unlike mitosis, chromosomes are duplicated twice in interphase
D) In meiosis, homologous chromosomes meet in synapsis to form tetrads
E) All of the above are correct
e) all of the above
In a monohybrid cross of an individual with an AA genotype with another of aa genotype, the phenotypic ratio of the offspring would be:
A) 100 percent dominant
B) 50 percent dominant; 50 percent recessive
C) 100 percent recessive
D) 75 percent dominant; 25 percent recessive
A) 100 percent dominant
One way of determining if an individual is homozygous or heterozygous dominant for a particular trait is to conduct a testcross with that individual.
True or false
True
Which of the following is true in a case of intermediate inheritance?
A) Neither allele is completely dominant over the other
B) The heterozygote phenotype appears either intermediate between or distinct from those of the parent.
C) One allele is always dominant over the other
D) Both A and B are correct
D) Both A and B are correct
Nucleic acids are composed of repeated units called nucleotides, each of which is composed of a five-carbon sugar, a nitrogenous base, and a protein.

True or False
False
Every time a cell divides, the structure of DNA must be precisely copied in the daughter cells in a process called:
A) Replication
B) Templation
C) Complementation
A) Replication
A codon is composed of three nucleotides and there are 64 possible codons in RNA.
True or False
True
Transfer RNA has a sequence of three bases called the anticodon that forms base pairs with complementary bases on the messenger RNA.
True or False
True
Allele
Alternate forms of genes coding for the same trait; situated at the same locus
Diploid:
A cell that contains both chromosomes of a homologous pair.
Haploid:
A cell that has only one chromosome of each homologous pair. The fusion of 2 haploid cells creates a diploid cell (fertilized egg)
Gamete:
Sex cell.
Humans have 46 chromosomes consisting of 23 homologous pairs.
Each parent donates one chromosome to each of the 23 homologous pairs. I.e., half of an individual’s chromosomes come from the female parent while half come from the male parent.
Reproductive cells – haploid (n) sex cells
These cells are called gametes and contain only half the number of chromosomes. If one somatic cell is fertilized by another, the resulting zygote would contain twice the number of chromosomes. I.e., the chromosome number would double each generation. For this reason, the chromosome number must be reduced during the production of gametes. This way, one haploid gamete is fertilized by another and the resulting zygote is diploid.
diploid number:** Eggs and sperm contain only 1/2 the diploid number of chromosomes.
the number of chromosomes found in the double set of chromosomes found in all body cells (2n)