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40 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
2 distinct regions of the skin are?
Epidermis and Dermis
How are teh top epithelial tissues fed if only the dermis is vascularized?
Nutrients diffuse through the tissue for the epidermis to recieve nourishment.
The subcutaneous tissue just deep to the dermis is know as?
Hypodermis or superficial fascia
Half of th bodys fat is stored here. This region anchors skin to the underlying organs. It acts a shock absorber and insulator
4 Type of cells found in the epidermis are?
1. Keratinocytes
2. Melanocytes
3. Langerhans cells
4. Merkel cell
Most numerous of th skin cells. Produce keratin-waterproofs skin. Cells arise fron teh deepest part of the epidermis.
Located ant teh base of the epidermis. Produce the pigment melanin. same # of cells in everyone/diff activity causes diff color races.
What is the role of melanin in the skin?
Melanin protects the cell nucleus from the destructive effects of UV radiation.
Arise from bone marrow and migrates to the epidermis and other areas of the body containing stratified squamous epithelial tissue.
Macrophages-assist in immune response
Langerhans Cells
found in small #'s at the dermal/epidermal junction. Sensory receptor
Merkel cells
Disc-like ending of a sensory nerve fiber
Merkel Discs
How many layers of:

Thin Skin?

Thick Skin?
4 layers: thin

5 layers: thick
Name the layers of the epidermis:

Stratum corneum
Stratum Lucidum (+ -)
Stratum Granulosum
Stratum Spinosum
Stratum Basale
Stratum layer that is 20-30 layers thick. 3/4 of epidermal thickness. Dead, completely filed with keratin.
Stratum Corneum
Clear Layer, Present only in thick skin
Stratum Lucidum
Stratum layer of 3-5 layers of cels where keratinization begins. Langerhans cells found here.
Stratum Granulosum
Stratum layer with spiney projections. Some mitosis occurs. Langerhans nd keratinocytes found here
Stratum spinosum
Stratum layer with wingle layer of cuboidal to columnar shaped cells. Seperated from the dermis by the BM. Many mitotic cells here 25% are melanocytes.
Stratum basale
What cell types are found in the dermis?
fibroblasts, macrophages, some mast cells and white blood cells
What are the 2 layers of the dermis?

Superficial layer of the dermis. Very vascular. Arranged in patterns that make whirled loops on the ventral sides of the hands and feet.
Papillary Layer
What 3 pigments contribute to the skins color?
1. melanin

2. carotene

3. hemoglobin
What are 3 effects of increases exposure to UV radiation?
1. Clumping of elastin fibers leasing to "leathery" skin

2. temporarily depresses the immune system

3. can alter the DNA od skin cells leading to cancer.
What are the appendages of the skin?
1. hairs

2. hair folicles

3. nails

4. sweat glands

5. sebaceous glands

all 5 are derived from the epidermis
What is the function and structure of hair?
function: protect head from trauma, heat loss and sunlight. shield dust-eyelashes and nose hairs

structure: 3 concentric layers of keratinized cells

1. core-mdulla
2. cortex-bulky layer
3. cuticle-outer strong layer
Sensory nerve ending that wraps around the hair follicle bulb
root hair plexus
nipple like knot of capillary tissue that protrudes into the hair bulb and supplies it with nutrients.
structures associated with hair folicles
1. nerve endings 2. sebaceous glands 3. smooth muscle sructure (involuntary)-arrector pili
goose bumps are a result of this smooth muscle contracting
arrector pilli
Lips, nipples, external genitalia and the thick areas of the hands and feet lack this
2 types of hair:

thin hair is called ?

thicker coarser hair is called?

2 factors that can influence hair growht and density:
1. nutrition

2. hormones
2 types of sweat glands and where are they found?
1. eccrine- palms,soles and forehead 99% water

2. apocrine- found in the auxillary and anogenital regions. secrete water along with fatty substance and proteins. odorless until bacterial decomposition occurs
Secretes ear wax

Secretes milk
Ceruminous Glands

Mammary Glands
Secretes sebum. softens and lubricates hair and skin. Antibacterial properties.
Sebaceous Glands
Bacteri responsible for acne
Least malignant skin cancer. cells in the stratum _ are altered and can't form _.
Basal Cell Carcinoma

Stratum Basale

Arises from keratinocytes in the stratum _. causes red papule found most often on the scalp, ears,dorsum of the hands and lower lip.
Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Deadly cancer of the _. Begins wherever there is pigment present.
Malignant Melanoma
Describe the ABCD rule for evaluating skin lesions
A. Assymmetry - 2 sides dont match

B. Border - irregular, not smooth

C. Color - pigmented spot

d. Diameter - larger than 6mm