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152 Cards in this Set

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absorption
passage of materials through the walls of the intestine into the blood-stream
amylase
enzyme secreted by the digestive tract to the outside of the body
amino acids
building blocks of proteins and produced when proteins are digested
anus
opening of the digestive tract tot the outside of the body
defecation
expulsion or passage of feces from the body through the anus
appendix
blind pouch hanging from the cecum (in the RLQ). literally means "hanging" (pend/o) "on" (ap-)
bile
digestive juice made in the liver and stored in the gallbladder. breaks up (emulsifies) large fat globules. bile was originally called gall (Latin bilis meaning "gall" or "anger"), probably because it has a bitter taste. it is composed of bile pigments, cholesterol, and bile salts
bilirubin
pigment released by the liver in bile
deglutition
swallowing
bowel
intestine
dentin
major tissue composing teeth, covered by the enamel in the crown and a protective layer of cementum in the root
canine teeth
pointed, dog-like (canine) teeth, next to (distal to) the incisors. also called cuspids or eyeteeth
cecum
first part of the large intestine
colon
large intestine (cecum, ascending, transeverse, and descending colon, and rectum)
digestion
breakdown of complex foods to simpler forms
common bile duct
carries bile from the liver and gallbladder to the duodenum
duodenum
first part of the small intestine. duo = 2, den = 10; the duodenum measures 12 inches long
elimination
removal of waste material from the body
emulsification
physical process of breaking up large fat globules into smaller globules, thus increasing the surface area that enzymes can use to digest the fat
enamel
hard, outermost layer of a tooth
enzyme
a chemical that speeds up a reaction between substances. digestive enzymes help in the breakdown of complex foods to simpler foods
esophagus
tube connecting the throat to the stomach. eso- means inward; phag/o means swallowing
fatty acids
substances produced when fats are digested
feces
solid wastes; stools
gallbladder
small sac under the liver; stores bile
glucose
simple sugar
glycogen
starch; glucose is stored in the form of glycogen in liver cells
hydrochloric acid
substance produced by the stomach; necessary for digestion of food
ileum
third part of the small intestine; from the Greek eilos, meaning "twisted." when the abdomen was viewed at autopsy, the intestine appeared twisted and ileum was often an area of obstruction
incisor
one of four front teeth in the dental arch
insulin
hormone produced by the endocrine cells of the pancreas. it transports sugar from the blood into cells and stimulates glycogen formation by the liver
jejunum
second part of the small intestine. the Latin jejunus means "empty"; this part of the intestine was always empty when a body was examined after death
lipase
pancreatic enzyme necessary to digest fats
liver
a large organ located in the RUQ of the abdomen. the liver secretes bile stores sugar, iron, and vitamins; produces blood proteins; and destroys worn-out red blood cells. the normal adult liver weighs about 2.3 to 3 pounds
lower esophageal sphincter (LES)
ring of muscles between the esophagus and the stomach. also called cardiac sphincter
mastication
chewing
molar teeth
sixth, seventh, and eighth from the middle on either side of the dental arch. premolar teeth are the 4th and 5th teeth, before the molars
palate
roof of the mouth. the hard palate lies anterior to the soft palate
pancreas
organ under the stomach; produces insulin (for transport of sugar into cells) andenzymes (for digestion of foods)
papillae (singular: papilla)
small elevations on the tongue. a papilla is a nipple-like elevation
parotid gland
salivary gland within the cheek, just anterior to the ear
peristalsis
rhythm-like contractions of the tubes of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and other tubular structures. peristalsis moves the contents through the GI tract at different rates; stomach (0.5 to 2 hours), small intestine (2 to 6 hours), and colon (6 to 72 hours). peri- means surrounding and -stalsis is constriction
pharynx
throat, the common passageway for food from the mouth and air from the nose
portal vein
large vein bringing blood to the liver from the intestines
protease
enzyme that digests protein
pulp
soft tissue within a tooth, containing nerves and blood vessels
pyloric sphincter
ring of muscle fibers at the distal region of the stomach, where it joins the duodenum. from Greek pyloros, meaning "gatekeeper"
rectum
last section of the colon
rugae
ridges on the hard palate and wall of the stomach
saliva
digestive juice produced by salivary glands
salivary glands
parotid, sublingual, and submandibular glands
sigmoid colon
lower part of the colon; shaped like an S
sphincter
ring of muscle fibers that constricts a passage or closes a natural opening
stomach
muscular organ that receives food from the esophagus. the stomach's parts are the fundus (proximal section), body (middle section), and antrum (distal section)
triglycerides
large fat molecules composed of three parts fatty acid and one part glycerol
uvula
soft tissue hanging from the soft palate into the mouth. Latin, uva means "grape"
villi (singular: villus)
microscopic projections in the walls of the small intestine that absorb nutrients into the bloodstream
an/o
anus
append/o
appendix
appendic/o
appendix
bucc/o
cheek
cec/o
cecum
celi/o
belly, abdomen
cheil/o
lip
cholecyst/o
gallbladder
choledoch/o
common bile duct
col/o
colon, large intestine
colon/o
colon
dent/i
tooth
duoden/o
duodenum
enter/o
intestines, usually small intestine
esophag/o
esophagus
faci/o
face
gastr/o
stomach
gingiv/o
gums
gloss/o
tongue
hepat/o
liver
ile/o
ileum
jejun/o
jejunum
labi/o
lip
lapar/o
abdomen
lingu/o
tongue
mandibul/o
lower jaw, mandible
odont/o
tooth
or/o
mouth
palat/o
palate
pancreat/o
pancreas
peritone/o
peritoneum
pharyng/o
throat
proct/o
anus and rectum
pylor/o
pyloric sphincter
rect/o
rectum
sialaden/o
salivary gland
sigmoid/o
sigmoid colon
stomat/o
mouth
amyl/o
starch
bil/i
gall, bile
bilirubin/o
bilirubin (bile pigment)
chol/e
gall, bile
chlorhydr/o
hydrochloric acid
gluc/o
sugar
glyc/o
sugar
glycogen/o
glycogen, animal starch
lip/o
fat, lipid
lith/o
stone
prote/o
protein
sial/o
saliva, salivary
steat/o
fat
-ase
enzyme
-chezia
defecation, elimination of wastes
-iasis
abnormal condition
-prandial
meal
anorexia
lack of appetite (-orexia = appetite)
ascites
abnormal accumulation of fluid in the abdomen
borborygmus
rumbling or gurgling noise produced by the movement of gas, fluid, or both in the gastrointestinal tract
constipation
difficulty in passing stools (feces)
diarrhea
frequent passage of loose, watery stools
dysphagia
difficulty in swallowing
eructation
gas expelled from the stomach through the mouth
flatus
gas expelled through the anus
hematochezia
passage of bright, fresh, red blood from the rectum
jaundice
yellow-orange coloration of the skin and other tissues caused by high levels of bilirubin in the blood (hyperbilirubinemia)
melena
black, tarry stools; feces containing digested blood
nausea
unpleasant sensation in the stomach and a tendency to vomit
steatorrhea
fat in the feces; frothy, foul-smeeling, fecal matter
aphthous stomatitis
inflammation of the mouth with small, painful ulcers
dental caries
tooth decay (caries means decay)
herpetic stomatitis
inflammation of the mouth (gingiva, lips, palate, and tongue) by infection with the herpesvirus
oral leukoplakia
white plaques or patches (-plakia means plaque) on the mucosa of the mouth
periodontal disease
inflammation and degeneration of gums, teeth, and surrounding bone; also called pyorrhea (py/o means pus)
achalasia
failure of the lower esophagus sphincter (LES) muscle of relax
esophageal varices
swollen, varicose veins in the distal portion of the esophagus or upper part of the stomach
gastric carcinoma
malignant tumor of the stomach
gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
solids and fluids return to the mouth from the stomach
hernia
protrusion of an organ or part through the muscle normally containing it
peptic ulcer
open sore or lesion of the mucous membrane of the stomach or duodenum
anal fistula
abnormal tube-like passageway near the anus
colonic polyposis
polyps (benign growths) protrude from the mucous membrane of the colon
colorectal cancer
adenocarcinoma of the colon or rectum, or both
Crohn disease
chronic inflammation of the intestinal tract (terminal ileum and colon)
diverticulosis
abnormal side pockets (outpouchings) in the intestinal wall
dysentery
painful, inflamed intestines
hemorrhoids
swollen, twisted, varicose veins in the rectal region
ileus
failure of peristalsis with obstruction of the intestines
intussusception
telescoping of the intestines
irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)
group of gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms associated with stress and tension
ulcerative colitis
chronic inflammation of the colon with presence of ulcers
volvulus
twisting of the intestine upon itself
cholelithiasis
gallstones in the gallbladder
cirrhosis
chronic degenerative disease of the liver
pancreatitis
inflammation of the pancreas
viral hepatitis
inflammation of the liver caused by a virus