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46 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
science that deals with the composition, structure, and properties of matter, and how matter changes under different conditions.
Organic Chemistry
the study of substances that contain carbon.
Inorganic Chemistry
the branch of chemistry dealing with compounds lacking carbon.
any substance that occupies space, has physical and chemical properties, and exhists in the form of a solid, liquid, or gas.
the basic unit of all matter.
the structual units that make up elements.
has a positive electrical charge.
has a neutral charge.
has a negative electrical charge.
formed by joining two or more atoms chemically.
Elemental Molecules
contain two or more atoms of the same element that are united chemically.
Compound Molecules
chemical combinations of two or more atoms of different elements.
a combination of two or more atoms of different delement united chemically with a ficed chemical composition, definite proportions, and distinct properties.
a combination of two or more substances united physically, not chemically, without a fixed composition and in any proportion.
Physical Properties
characteristics that can be determined without a chemical reation and does not cause a chemical change in the identity of the substance.
Chemical Properties
characteristics that can only be determined with a chemical reaction and do cause a chemical change in the identitiy of the substance.
Physical Change
change in the form or physical properties of a substance without the formation of a new substance.
Chemical Change
change in the chemical composition of a substance, in which a new substance or substances are formed having properties different from the original.
colorless, odorless, tasteless gas and is the lightest element known.
the most abundant element found both free and in compounds.
colorless, gaseous element found free in the air; constitutes about four-fifths of the air.
gaseous mixture that makes up the earth's atmosphere.
the most abundant of all substances, comprising about 75 percent of the earth's surface and about 65 percent of the human body.
Hydrogen Peroxide
compound of hydrogen and oxygen; a colorless liquid with characteristic odor and a slightly acid taste.
relative degree of acidity and alkalinity of a substance.
substances that have a pH below 7.0, taste sour, and turn litmus paper from blue to red.
Alkalis or Bases
substances that have a pH above 7.0, taste bitter, and turn litmus paper from red to blue.
Acid Mantle
protective barrier against certain forms of bacteria and microorganisms, and it may be a factor in the natural skin shedding and renewal process.
chemical reation that combines an element or compound with oxygen to produce oxide.
rapid oxidation of any substance, accompanied by the production of heat and light.
to combine or cause an element to combine with oxygen.
Oxidizing Agent
substance that releases oxygen.
subtration of oxygen from, or the addition of hydrogen to, a substance.
contraction for reduction-oxidation; chemical reation in which the oxidizing agent is reduced and the reducing agent is oxidized.
blended mixture of two or more solids, liquids, or gaseous substances.
dissolved substance in a solution.
substance, usually liquid, that dissolves another substance to form a solution, with no change in chemical composition.
Miscible Liquids
capable of being mixed with another liquid in any proportion without separating.
Immiscible Liquids
not capable of being mixed.
state in which solid particles are distributed throughout a liquid medium.
mixture of two or more immiscible substances united with the aid of a binder or emulsifier.
substances that act as a bridge to allow oil and water to mix.
capable of combining with or attracting water. "water-loving"
having an affinity or attraction to fat and oils. "oil-loving"
Oil-in-Water Emulsion (O/W)
oil droplets are suspended in a water base.
Water-in-Oil Emulsion (W/O)
droplets of water are suspended in an oil base.