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46 Cards in this Set

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Chemistry
science that deals with the composition, structure, and properties of matter, and how matter changes under different conditions.
Organic Chemistry
the study of substances that contain carbon.
Inorganic Chemistry
the branch of chemistry dealing with compounds lacking carbon.
Matter
any substance that occupies space, has physical and chemical properties, and exhists in the form of a solid, liquid, or gas.
Element
the basic unit of all matter.
Atoms
the structual units that make up elements.
Proton
has a positive electrical charge.
Neutron
has a neutral charge.
Electron
has a negative electrical charge.
Molecule
formed by joining two or more atoms chemically.
Elemental Molecules
contain two or more atoms of the same element that are united chemically.
Compound Molecules
chemical combinations of two or more atoms of different elements.
Compound
a combination of two or more atoms of different delement united chemically with a ficed chemical composition, definite proportions, and distinct properties.
Mixture
a combination of two or more substances united physically, not chemically, without a fixed composition and in any proportion.
Physical Properties
characteristics that can be determined without a chemical reation and does not cause a chemical change in the identity of the substance.
Chemical Properties
characteristics that can only be determined with a chemical reaction and do cause a chemical change in the identitiy of the substance.
Physical Change
change in the form or physical properties of a substance without the formation of a new substance.
Chemical Change
change in the chemical composition of a substance, in which a new substance or substances are formed having properties different from the original.
Hydrogen
colorless, odorless, tasteless gas and is the lightest element known.
Oxygen
the most abundant element found both free and in compounds.
Nitogen
colorless, gaseous element found free in the air; constitutes about four-fifths of the air.
Air
gaseous mixture that makes up the earth's atmosphere.
Water
the most abundant of all substances, comprising about 75 percent of the earth's surface and about 65 percent of the human body.
Hydrogen Peroxide
compound of hydrogen and oxygen; a colorless liquid with characteristic odor and a slightly acid taste.
pH
relative degree of acidity and alkalinity of a substance.
Acids
substances that have a pH below 7.0, taste sour, and turn litmus paper from blue to red.
Alkalis or Bases
substances that have a pH above 7.0, taste bitter, and turn litmus paper from red to blue.
Acid Mantle
protective barrier against certain forms of bacteria and microorganisms, and it may be a factor in the natural skin shedding and renewal process.
Oxidation
chemical reation that combines an element or compound with oxygen to produce oxide.
Combustion
rapid oxidation of any substance, accompanied by the production of heat and light.
Oxidize
to combine or cause an element to combine with oxygen.
Oxidizing Agent
substance that releases oxygen.
Reduction
subtration of oxygen from, or the addition of hydrogen to, a substance.
Redox
contraction for reduction-oxidation; chemical reation in which the oxidizing agent is reduced and the reducing agent is oxidized.
Solution
blended mixture of two or more solids, liquids, or gaseous substances.
Solute
dissolved substance in a solution.
Solvent
substance, usually liquid, that dissolves another substance to form a solution, with no change in chemical composition.
Miscible Liquids
capable of being mixed with another liquid in any proportion without separating.
Immiscible Liquids
not capable of being mixed.
Suspension
state in which solid particles are distributed throughout a liquid medium.
Emulsion
mixture of two or more immiscible substances united with the aid of a binder or emulsifier.
Surfactants
substances that act as a bridge to allow oil and water to mix.
Hydrophilic
capable of combining with or attracting water. "water-loving"
Lipophilic
having an affinity or attraction to fat and oils. "oil-loving"
Oil-in-Water Emulsion (O/W)
oil droplets are suspended in a water base.
Water-in-Oil Emulsion (W/O)
droplets of water are suspended in an oil base.