Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

159 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
angi/o vas/o vascul/o
fatty (lipid) paste
circle or crown
pector/o steth/o
ven/o phleb/o
swollen, twisted vein
ventricle (belly or pouch)
upper right or left chamber of heart
membrane lining the cavities of the heart
membrane forming the outer layer of the heart
intreatrial spetum
partition between right and left atria
introventricle septum
partition between right and left ventricles
heart muscle
protective sac enclosing the heart composed of two layers with fluid between
lower right or left chamber of the heart
heart valves
structure within the heart that open and close with the heartbeat to regulate the one-way flow of blood
aortic valve
heart valve between the left ventricle and aorta
mitral or bicuspid valve
heart valve between the left atrium and the left ventricle
pulmonary semilunar valve
heart valve opening from the right ventricle to the pulmonary artery
tricuspid valve
valve between the right atrium and the right ventricle
valves of the veins
Valves located at intervals within the lining of veins. Especially in the legs, which constrict with muscle action to move blood
vessels that carry blood from the heart to arterioles
large artery that is the main trunk of the arterial system branching from the left ventricle
small vessels that receive blood from the arteries
tiny vessels that join arterioles and venules
small vessels that gather blood from the capillaries into the veins
the vessels that carry blood to the heart from the venules
systemic circulation
circulation of blood throughout the body through arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins to deliver oxygen and nutrients to body tissues
coronary circulation
circulation of blood through the coronary blood vessels to deliver oxygen and nutrients to the heart muscle tissue
pulmonary circulation
circulation of blood from the pulmonary artery through the vessels in the lungs and back to the heart via pulmonary vein, providing for exchange of gases
to expand; period in the cardiac cycle when blood enters the relaxed ventricles from the atria
to contract; period in the cardiac cycle when the heart is in contraction and blood is ejected through the aorta and pulmonary veins
normal blood pressure
low blood pressure
high blood pressure
thickening, loss of elasticity, and calcification (hardening) of arterial walls
buildup of fatty substances that harden within the walls of arteries
atheromatous plaque
a swollen area within the lining of an artery caused by the buildup of fats
a stationary blood clot
a clot carried in the bloodstream that obstructs when it lodges
condition of narrowing of a part
compression of a part
plugging; obstruction of closing off
to hold blood back; decreased blood flow to tissue caused by constriction or occlusion of a blood vessel
perfusion deficit
a lack of flow through a blood vessel caused by narrowing, occlusion
to stuff; a localized area of necrosis caused by ischemia resulting from occlusion of a blood vessel
angina pectoris
chest pain caused by a temporary loss of oxygenated blood to heart muscle often caused by narrowing of coronary arteries
a widening; bulging of the wall of the heart, aorta, or artery caused by congenital defect or acquired weakness
saccular aneurysm
a saclike bulge on one side
fusiform aneurysm
a spindle-shaped bulge
dissecting aneurysm
a split or tear of the vessel wall
to limp; pain in a limb while walking that subsides after rest; caused by inadequate blood supply
heart murmur
an abnormal sound from the heart produced by defects in the chambers or valves
subjective experience of pounding, skipping or racing heartbeats
to grow; an abnormal growth of tissue around a valve, generally a result of infection
sinoatrial node (SA node)
the pacemaker; highly specialized neurological tissue impeded in the wall of the right atrium which initiates electrical conduction of the heartbeat
atrioventricular node (AV node)
receives and amplifies the conduction impulses from the SA node to the bundle of his
bundle of His
fibers extending from the right and left of the av node that fire impulses to the purkinje fibers
Purkinje fibers
fibers in the ventricles that transmit impulses to the right and left ventricle causing them to contract
resting state of myocardial cells
change from polarization to contraction
recharging the myocardial cell from contracted to resting
normal sinus rhythm (NSR)
regular beat of the heart cycle stimulated by the SA node (60-100 beats per minute)
any of several kinds of irregularity or loss of rhythm of heartbeat
slow heart rate <60
chaotic, irregular contractions of the heart
extremely rapid but regular contractions of the heart
premature ventricular contraction (PVC)
a ventricular contraction preceding the normal impulses initiated by the SA node
fast heart rate >100
aterioclerotic heart disease (ASHD)
a degenerative condition of the arteries characterized by thickening of the inner lining, loss of elasticity, and susceptibility to rupture
bacterial endocarditis
a bacterial inflammation that affects the endocardium of the heart valves
cardiac tamponade
compression of the heart produced by the accumulation of fluid in the pericardial sac as can result from pericarditis or trauma, causing rupture of a blood vessel within the heart
a general term for disease of the heart muscle
congenital anomaly of the heart
any condition of the heart at birth
atrial septal defect (ASD)
an opening in the septum separating the atria
coarctation of the aorta
narrowing of the descending portion of the aorta resulting in a limited blood flow of blood to the lower part of the body
patent ductus arteriosus
an abnormal opening between the pulmonary artery and the aorta caused by the failure of the fetal ductus arteriosus to close after birth
ventricular septal defect (VSD)
an opening in the septum separating the ventricles
congestive heart failure (CHF), left ventricular failure
failure of the left ventricle to pump and adequate amount of blood to meet the demands of the body
cor pulmonale, right ventricular failure
enlargement of the right ventricle resulting from chronic disease within the lungs that causes congestion within the pulmonary circulation and resistance of blood flow to the lungs
coronary artery disease (CAD)
a condition affecting artieries of the heart that reduces the flow of blood and delivery of oxygen and nutrients to the myocardium; most often caused by atherosclerosis
hypertension (HTN)
persistently high blood pressure
essential (primary) hypertension
high blood pressure attributed to no single cause
secondary hypertension
high blood pressure caused by the effects of another disease
mitral valve prolapse (MVP)
protrusion of one or both cusps of the mitral valve back into the left atrium during ventricular contraction, resulting in incomplete closure and backflow of blood
myocardial infraction
heart attack; death of myocardial tissue owing to loss of blood flow (ischemia)
inflammation of myocardium most often caused by viral or bacterial infection
inflammation of the pericardium
inflammation of a vein
rheumatic heart disease
damage to heart muscle and heart valve by rheumatic fever
inflammation of a vein associated with a clot formation
varicose veins
abnormally swollen and twisted veins with defective valves; most often seen in the legs
deep vein thrombosis
formation of a clot in a deep vein of the body, occurring most often in the femoral and iliac veins
a physical examination method of listening to sounds within the body with a stethoscope
an abnormal heart sound that mimics the gait of a horse; related to abnormal ventricular contraction
electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG)
an electrical picture of the heart represented by positive and negative deflections on a graph labeled with the letters p, q, r, s, and t, corresponding to events of the cardiac cycle
stress electrocardiogram
an ECG of the heart recorded during the induction of controlled physical exercise
Holter ambulatory monitor
a portable electrocardiograph worn by the patient that monitors electrical activity of the hear over 24 hours
magnetic resonance angiography
imaging of the heart and blood vessels for evaluation of pathology
nuclear medicine imaging
radionuclide organ imaging
myocardial radionuclide perfusion scan
a scan of the heart made after an intravenous injection of an isotope
myocardial radionuclide perfusion stress scan
a scan of the heart made after an intravenous injection of an isotope during exercise
x-ray imaging
the process of x-ray imaging of a blood vessel after injection of contrast medium
record obtained by angiography
coronary angiogram
radiograph of the blood vessels of the heart
x-ray of an artery
x-ray of the aorta
x-ray of a vein
cardiac catheterization
introduction of a flexible, narrow tube through a vein or artery into the heart
left heart catheterization
x-ray of the left ventricular cavity and coronary arteries
right heart catheterization
measurement of oxygen saturation and pressure readings of the right side of the heart
an x-ray visualizing the ventricles
stroke volume (SV)
measurement of blood ejected from the ventricle in one contraction
cardiac output (CO)
measurement of the amount of blood ejected from either ventricle of the heart per minute
ejection fraction
measurement of the volume percentage of left ventricular contents eject with each contraction
sonographic imaging
recording of sound waves through the heart to evaluate structure and motion
stress echocadio gram
recording of sound waves through the heart to evaluate structure and motion during exercise
transesophageal echocardiogram (TEE)
an echocardiographic image of the heart after placement of an ultrasonic transducer at the end of an endoscope inside the esophagus
Doppler sonography
ultrasound technique used to evaluate blood flow to determine the presence of a deep vein thrombosis or carotid insufficiency, or to determine flow through the heart, chambers, valves, and so on
coronary artery bypass graft
grafting of a portion of a blood vessel retrieved from another part of the body to bypass an occluded coronary artery restoring circulation to myocardial tissue
opening; joining of two blood vessels to allow flow from one to the other
valve replacement
replacement of a diseased heart valve with an artificial one
surgical repair of a heart valve
transmyocaridal revacularization (TMR)
a laser technique used to open tiny channels in the heart muscle to restore blood flow, thereby relieving angina in patients who have advanced coronary artery disease
use of a flexible fiberscoptic angioscope that is guided through a specific blood vessel to visually assess a lesion and to select the mode of therapy
an incision into an artery
excision of atheromatous plaque from within an artery utilizing a device housed in a flexible catheter that selectively cuts away or pulverizes tissue buildup
incision into an artery for the removal of a embolus
incision into an artery for the removal of a thrombus
surgical removal of the lining of an artery to clear blockage caused by a clot or atherosclerotic plaque build up
percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA)
a method of treating the narrowing of a coronary artery by inserting a specialized catheter with a balloon attachment, then inflating it to dilate and open the narrowed portion of the vessel and restore blood flow to the myocardium
intravascular stent
implantation of a device to reinforce the wall of a vessel and assure its openness
termination of ventricular fibrillation by delivering an electrical stimulation to the heart;
device that delivers the electrical stimulus in defibrillation
termination of tachycardia either by pharmaceutical means or by delivery of electrical energy
implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD)
an implanted, baterry-operated device with rate sensing leads; the device monitors cardiac impulses and initiates an electrical stimulus as needed to stop ventricular fibrillation or tachycardia
a device used to treat slow heart rates by electrically stimulating the heart to contract; most often implanted with lead wires and battery circuitry under the skin but can be temporarily placed externally with lead wires inserted into the heart via a vein
angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACE)
a drug that suppresses the conversion of angiotensis in the blood by the angiotensis-converting enzyme; used in the treatment of hypertension
a drug that dilates coronary arteries, resorting oxygen to the tissues to relieve the pain angina pectoris
a drug that counteracts cardiac arrhythmia
a drug that prevents clotting of the blood
a drug that lowers blood pressure
beta-adrenergic blocking agents, beta blockers
agents that inhibit the responses to sympathetic adrenergic nerve activity, causing a slowing of electrical conduction and heart rate and a lowering of the pressure within the walls of the vessels; used to treat angina pectoris and hypertension
calcium channel blockers
agents that inhibit the entry of calcium ions in heart muscle cells, causing a slowing of the heart rate, lessening the demand for oxygen and nutrients, and relaxing of the smooth muscle cells of the blood vessels to cause dilation; used to prevent or treat angina pectoris, some arrhythmias, and hypertension
a drug that increases the force of myocardial contractions in the hart; commonly used to treat congestive heart failure
a drug that increases the secretion of urine; commonly prescribed in treating hypertension
a drug that reduces serum fat and cholesterol
thrombolytic agents
drugs used to dissolve thrombi
a drug that causes a narrowing of the blood vessels, decreasing blood flow
a drug that causes dilation of the blood vessels, increasing blood flow