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64 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
activation energy
the energy required to start a chemical reaction
homolactic acid fermentation
a pathway in which pyruvic acid is directly converted to lactic acid using electrons from reduced NAD (NADH)
autotrophy
"self-feeding" - the use of CO2 as a source of carbon atoms for the synthesis of biomolecules
catabolic pathway
a chain of chemical reactions that capture energy by breaking down large molecules into simpler components
active site
area on the surface of an enzyme to which its substrate binds
anaerobic respiration
respiration in which the final electron acceptor in the electron transport chain is an inorganic molecule other than oxygen, e.g. a sulfate, nitrate, etc.
cyclic phosphorylation
pathway in which excited electrons from chlorophyll are used to generate ATP without the splitting of water or reduction of NADP
fermentation
anaerobic metabolism of the pyruvic acid produced in glycolysis
electron transport chain
(also called respiratory chain) a series of compounds that pass electrons to oxygen (the final electron acceptor)
competitive inhibitor
a molecule similar in structure to a substrate that competes with that substrate by binding to the active site
substrate
(1) the substance on which an enzyme acts (2) a surface or food source on which a cell can grow or a spore can germinate
oxidative phosphorylation
process in which the energy of electrons is captured in high-energy bonds as phosphate groups combine with ADP to form ATP
quinone
(also called coenzyme Q) a nonprotein, lipid-soluble electron carrier in oxidative phosphorylation
chemoheterotroph
a heterortroph that obtains energy from breaking down ready-made organic molecules
glycolysis
an anaerobic metabolic pathway used to break down glucose into pyruvic acid while producing some ATP
phototransferase system (PTS)
a mechanism that uses enrgy from phosphoenolpyruvate to move sugar molecules into cells by active transport
catabolism
the chemical breakdown of molecules in which energy is released
exoenzyme
(also called extracellular enzyme) an enzyme that is synthesized in a cell but crosses the cell membrane to act in the periplasmic space or the cell's immediate environment
chemoautotroph
an autotroph that obtains energy by oxidizing simple inorganic substances such as sulfides and nitrites
photoheterotroph
a heterotroph that obtains energy from light
enzyme-substrate complex
a loose association of an enzyme with its substrate
electron acceptor
an oxidizing agent in a chemical reaction
noncyclic photoreduction
the photosynthetic pathway in which excited electrons from chlorophyll are used to generate ATP and reduce NADP with the splitting of water molecules
FAD
Flavin adenine dinucleotide, a coenzyme that carries hydrogen atoms and electrons
allosteric site
the site at which a noncompetitive inhibitor binds
heterotrophy
"other-feeding", the use of carbon atoms from organic compounds for the synthesis of biomolecules
noncompetitive inhibitor
a molecule that attaches to an enzyme at an allosteric site (a site other than the active site), distorting the shape of the active site so that the enzyme can no longer function
flavoprotein
an electron carrier in oxidative phosphorylation
NAD
nicotinamide dinucleotide, a coenzyme that carries hydrogen atoms and electrons
coenzyme
an organic molecule bound to or loosely associated with an enzyme
oxidation
the loss of electrons and hydrogen atoms
alcoholic fermentation
fermentation in which pyruvic acid is reduced to ethyl alcohol by electrons from reduced NAD (NADH)
light reactions
the part of photosynthesis in which light energy is used to excite electrons from chlorophyll, which are then used to generate ATP and NADPH
electron donor
a reducing agent in a chemical reaction
autotroph
an organism that uses carbon dioxide gas to synthesize organic molecules
amphibolic pathway
a metabolic pathway that can yield either energy or building blocks for synthetic reactions
endoenzyme
an enzyme that acts within the cell producing it
anaerobe
an organism that does not use oxygen, including some organisms that are killed by exposure to oxygen
photolysis
process in which light energy is sued to split water molecules into protons, electrons, and oxygen molecules
apoenzyme
the protein portion of an enzyme
aerobe
an organism that uses oxygen including ones that must have oxygen
surfactant
a substanc that reduces surface tension
electron transport
process in which pairs of electrons are transferred between cytochromes and other compounds
Krebs cycle
(also called tricarboxylic acid cycle and the citric acid cycle) a sequence of enzyme-catalyzed chemical reactions that metabolizes 2-carbon units called acetyl groups to CO2 and H20
dark reactions
(also called carbon fixation) Part of photosynthesis in which carbon dioxide gas is reduced by electrons from reduced NADP (NADPH) to form various carbohydrate molecules, chiefly glucose
reduction
the gain or electrons and hydrogen atoms
aerobic respiration
process in which aerobic organisms gain energy from the catabolism of organic molecules via the Krebs cycle and oxidative phophorylation
phosphorylation
the addition of a phosphate group to a molecule, often from ATP; generally increasing the molecule's energy
permease
an enzyme complex involved in active transport through the cell membrane
metabolic pathway
a chain of chemical reactions in which the product of one reaction serves as the substrate for the next
porin
a protein in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria that nonselectively transports polar molecules into the periplasmic space
metabolism
the sum of all chemical processes carried out by living organisms
beta oxidation
a metabolic pathway that breaks down fatty acids into 2-carbon pieces
photoautotroph
an autotroph that obtains energy from light
photosynthesis
the capture of energy from light and use of this energy to manufacture carbohydrates from carbon dioxide
cofactor
an inorganic necessary for the function of an enzyme
chemical equilibrium
a steady state in which there is no net change in the concentrations of substrates or products
holoenzyme
a functional enzyme consisting of an apoenzyme and a coenzyme or cofactor
feedback inhibition
(also called end-product inhibition) regulation of a metabolic pathway by the concentration of one of its intermediates or, typically, its end product, which inhibits an enzyme in the pathway
specicifity
(1) the property of an enzyme that allows it to accept only certain substrates and catalyze only one particular action (2) the property of a virus that restricts it to certain specific types of host cells (3) the ability of the immune system to mount a unique immune response to each antigen it encounters
cytochrome
an electron carrier functioning in the electron transport chain; heme protein
anabolic pathway
a chain of chemical reactions in which energy is used to synthesize biologically important molecules
enzyme
a protein catalyst that controls the rate of chemical reactions in cells
heterotroph
an organism that uses compounds to produce biomolecules