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20 Cards in this Set

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What is respirations
the process of gas exchange between the individual and the environment
Respirations involves two components
1 pulmonary ventilation or breathing: the movement of air between the atmosphere and the alveoli of the lungs
2 Diffusion of the oxygen and CO2 between the alveoli and pulmonary capillaries
what is the function of respiratory system
*gas exchange
*oxygen from insired air diffuses from the alveoli in the lungs into the blood in pulmonary capillaries. CO2 produced during cell metabolism diffuses from the blood into the alveoli and is exhaled the organs of the respiratory system facilitate this exchange and protect the body from foreign matter
the respiratory system is divided into 2 systems teh upper and the lower
upper:the mouth, nose, pharynx, larynx
lower: trachea and lungs with the bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli, pulmonary capillary network, and pleural membranes
what is the larynx commonly called
teh adams apple
what is the respiratory membrane
the alveolar and the capillary walls form this
pleura
thin double layer of tissue covering the outer surface of the lungs
Ventilitaion of the lungs is accomplished through the act of breathing
inspiration(inhalation) when air flows into the lungs
expiration(exhalation) as air moves out of the lungs
adequate ventilation depends on
*clear airways
*an intact nervous system and respiratory center
*an intct thoracic cavity capable od expanding and contracting
*adequate pulmonary compliance and recoil
define the following intrapleural pressure,
intrapulmonary pressure, tidal volume, lung compliance
*intrapleural pressure=pressure in teh pleural cavity
*intrapulmonary pressure=pressure within the lungs
*tidal volume=degree of chest expansion during normal breathing
*lung compliance=the expansibility or stretchability of lung tissue
factors afecting respiratory function
age
environment
lifestyle
health status
medications
stress
RESPIRATORY FUNCTIONS CAN BE ALTERED BY CONDITION THAT AFFECT
*THE MOVEMENT OF AIR INTO OR OUT THE LUNGS
*THE DIFFUSION OF OXYGEN AND CARBON DIOXIDE BETWEEN THE ALVEOLI AND THE PULMONARY CAPILLARIES
*TEH TRANSPORT OF OXYGEN AND CO2 VIA THE BLOOS TO ABD FROM TEH TISSUE CELLS
THREE MAJOR ALTERATIONS IN RESPIRATIONS ARE hypoxia, altered breathing, and obstructed airway
HYPOXIA=CONDITION OF INSUFFICIENT OXYGEN ANYWHERE IN THE BOALTERED BREATHING PATTERNS-RATE VOLUME, RYTHM AND RELATIVE EASE OR EFFORT OF RESPIRATIONS
*MAINTINIGN AN OPEN AIRWAY IS A NURSES RESP AND ONE THAT REQUIRES IMMEDIATE ATTENTION

*
what is hypoventilation
HYPOVENTILATION=INADEQUATE ALVEOLAR VENTILATION CAN LEAD TO HYPOXIA, CO2 USUALLY ACCUMULATES IN THE BLOOD CALLED HYPERCARBIA
*
WHEN ASSESSING A PATIENTS OXYGENATION THE NURSE SHOULD
USE ALL FOUR PHYSICAL EXAMINIATIONS TECHNIQUES, INSPECTION, PALPATION, PERCUSSION AND AUSCULATION
WHAT IS SUCTIONING
WHEN CLIENTS HAVE DIFFICLTY HANDLING THEIR SUCTION OR AN AIRWAY IS IN PLACE, SUCTIONING MAY BE NECESSARY TO CLEAR AIR PASSAGES, IT IS THROUGH A CATHETER EITHER AN OPEN TIPPED OR WHISTLE TIPPED
INTERVENTION BY THE NURSE TO MAINTAIN THE NORMAL RESPIRATION
*POSITIONING THE CLIENT TO ALLOW MAXIMUM CHEST EXPANSION
*ENCOURAGEING OR PROVIDING FREQUENT CHANGES IN POSITION
*ENCOURAGING AMBULATION
*IMPLEMENTING MEASURES THAT PROMOTE COMFORT SUCH AS GIVING PAIN MEDICINE
EXAMPLES OF NURSING INTERVENTION TO FACILITATE PULMONARY VENTILTIAON WILL INCLUDE
ENSURING A PATENT AIRWAY
POSITIONING
ENCOURAGE DEEP BREATHING AND COUGHING
ENSURING HYDRATION
WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE OROPHARYNGEAL, NASOPHARYNGEAL, AND ENDOTRACHEAL SUCTIONING
OROPHARYGNEAL AND NASOPHARYNGEAL AIRWAYS ARE USED TO KEEP THE UPPER AIR PASAGE OPEN WHEN THEY MAY BECOME OBSTRUCTED BY SECRETION OR TONGUE OROPH-STIMULTE GAG REFLEX
NAOPHARY-TOLERATED BETTER BY ALERT CLIENTS
ENDOTRACHEA;-MOST OCMMON INSERTED FOR CLEINTS WHO HAD GENERAL ANESTHIA
TRACHEOTOMY-CLIENTS WHO NEED LONG TERM AIRWAY SUPPORT
WHAT ARE ARTIFICIAL AIRWAYS
AIRWAYS ARE INSERTED TO MAINTAIN A PATENT AIR PASSAGE FOR CLIENTS WHOSE AIRWAYS HAS BECOME OBSTRUCTED