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74 Cards in this Set

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Tissues
groups of cells with common structure and function
Epithelial tissue
1. covers external surfaces, internal cavities, tubes, and organs
2. One surface of the tissue is free and the other adheres to a basement membrane.
Basement membrane
dense mat of extracellular matrix (ECM)
Protection
Animal skin formed of epithelial tissue
Ciliated epithelium along the respiratory tract sweep impurities toward throat
Absorption
Gut is lined with epithelial tissue and it functions to absorb nutrients from food
Lungs are also lined with epithelial tissue and it functions to absorb oxygen
Secretion
Glandular epithelium secretes chemicals, mucus, saliva, wax, milk
Simple epithelium
is one cell thick.
Respiratory surfaces such as the lining of the lungs or the skin of a frog are only one cell thick so that gasses can pass through quickly
Stratified epithelium .
has more than one layer
Human skin contains layers of cells
Pseudostratified epithelium
appears to be layered but each cell touches the same basement membrane.
Shapes of Epithelial Cells
Flat (squamous)
Cube-shaped (cuboidal)
Elongated (columnar)
Connective tissue
Binds and supports body parts
Protects
Fills spaces
Stores fat (for energy)
Transports materials
Connective tissue
sparse population of cells separated by a non-living material (extra-cellular matrix)
Collagen fibers
provide strength and flexibility
the most abundant protein in animal bodies
Elastic fibers
provide elasticity
When stretched, they return to their original shape.
Reticular fibers
small and branched
They provide a support framework for organs such as the liver and lymph nodes.
Loose Connective Tissue
found in the skin and in most internal organs of vertebrates; allows organs to expand
Adipose Tissue
type of loose connective tissue; has reduced matrix material and contains enlarged fibroblasts (cells) that store fat.
Dense Connective Tissue
collagen fibers are more tightly packed than in loose connective tissue; found in ligaments and tendons
Cartilage
found at ends of bones; reduces friction
Blood
cells surrounded by non-living plasma
Bone
rigid organs that form part of the endoskeleton of vertebrates. Bones function to move, support, and protect the body, produce red and white blood cells and store minerals.
Fibroblasts
cells in loose and dense connective tissue; produce fibers and non-living material
Macrophages
cells specialized for phagocytizing foreign materials, bacteria, and cleaning up debris
Muscle Tissue
most abundant tissue type in animals; contracts in response to stimulation. It cannot lengthen by itself but is lengthened by the contraction of other muscles
Types of muscle tissue
1. Skeletal muscle – very long cells
2. Cardiac muscle – found in the heart
3. Smooth muscle – involuntary muscle. Surrounds gut and moves food through digestive tract.
Nervous Tissue
responds to stimuli and transmits impulses from one body part to another
Endoderms
use metabolic heat to regulate body temperature
Allows sustained activity
Can maintain stable body temperature on land
Energetically expensive
Ecotherms
gain most of their heat from the environment
Suspension feeders
sift small food particles from water
Substrate feeders
animals that live in or on their food source
substrate feeders
animals that live in or on their food source
Fluid feeders
suck nutrient-rich fluid from a living host
Bulk feeders
eat large pieces of food
Homeostasis
Animals (should) eat so that:
Energy consumed = Energy expended
Digestion
the chemical breakdown of large food molecules into smaller molecules that can be used by cells
Digestion is accomplished by enzymes
Breakdown of polysaccharides
to Maltose
1. Salivary Amylase
2. Pancreatic Amylase
Breakdown of Maltose
to Glucose
maltase -intestinal cells
Breakdown of protein
to peptides
pepsin - stomach
trypsin - pancreas
Breakdown of peptides
to amino acids
peptidases -intestinal cells
Breakdown of fat
to glycerol + fatty acids
lipase - pancreas
organs - digestive system
mouth, pharnyx, esophagus, oral cavity, salivary glands, liver, gall bladder, pancreas, stomach, small intestinge, large intestine, rectum, anus
Teeth
chew food into smaller pieces so that chemical digestion can occur faster
Saliva
1. contains amlyase – an enzyme to break down starch
Saliva
2. contains mucous/mucins – lubricate and hold chewed up food together
Tongue
pushes food back to be swallowed
Esophagus
leads to stomach
Trachea
leads to lungs
Epiglottis
prevents food form entering trachea when swallowing
Peristalsis
rhythmic contractions that move food in the gut. Peristalsis in the esophagus moves food from the mouth to the stomach
Stomach
stores up to 2L of food
Contains gastric juice
Pepsin
digests proteins
HCl
aids pepsin, keeps stomach at pH 2
Mucous
protects stomach lining
chyme
a mixture produced by muscular walls of the stomach contracting to mix food with gastric juice
Duodenem
first part of small intestine
sphincter
a circular muscle
Chyme enters from stomach
Pancreas
Produces pancreatic juice
Sodium bicarbonate
neutralizes the acidic material from the stomach.
Pancreatic amylase
digests starch to maltose
Trypsin and Chymotrypsin
digest proteins to peptides
Lipase
digests fats to glycerol and fatty acids
Gastric duct
Gastric juice enters the small intestine through
Liver functions
Produces Bile
Detoxifies blood
Stores glucose (as glycogen)
Produces blood proteins
Destroys old red blood cells
Converts ammonia to urea
Bile
Stored in gallbladder and sent to duodenem through a tract
Emulsifies fats
Small Intestine
important for absorption
3m long
villi
projections to increase surface area
Individual villus cells have microvilli
Peptidase
completes digestion of peptides
Maltase
completes digestion of disaccharides
Large Intestine (colon)
important for reabsorption
Receives 10L of water a day, reabsorbs 95%
Absorbs sodium
Rectum
last 20cm of colon
Feces
25% solid, 75% water
1/3 of solids is intestinal bacteria, 2/3 is undigested materials
Gastrin
secreted by endocrine cells in stomach
Stimulates stomach to produce gastric juice
Secretin
produced by cells of duodenem
Production stimulated by acid chyme from stomach
Stimulates pancreas to produce sodium bicarbonate and liver to secrete bile
CCK (cholecystokinin)
produced by duodenal cells
Stimulates the gallbladder to release bile and the pancreas to produce pancreatic enzymes
Gastric Inhibitory Peptide (GIP)
produced by duodenal cells
Opposes effects of gastrin