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79 Cards in this Set

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Abdominal cavity
The cavity beneath the thoracic cavity that is seperated from the the thoracic cavity by the diaphragm; contains the liver, gallbladder, spleen, stomach, pancreas, intestines and kidneys
abdomiopelvic cavity
A term that describes the abdominal and pelvic cavity collectively; refers to the space between the diaphragm and the groin.
anaplasia
A change in the structure and orientation of cells, characterized by a loss of differentiation and reversion to a more primitive form.
anatomical position
The standard reference position for the body as a whole; the person is standing with arms at the sides and palms turned forward; the individual's head and feet are also pointing forward.
anterior
pertaining to the front of the body or toward the belly of the body
aplasia
a developmental failure resulting in the absence of any organ or tissue
cardiac muscle
the muscle that makes up the muscular wall of the heart
caudal
pertaining to the tail
cell
the smallest and most numerous structural unit of living matter
cell membrane
the semi-permeable barrier that is the outer covering of a cell
cervical vertebrae
the first seven segments of the spinal column; identified as C1-C7
chromosomes
the threadlike structures within the nucleus that control the functions of growth, repair, and reproduction for the body
coccyx
the tailbone. located at the end of the vertebral column, the coccyx results from the fusion of four individual coccygeal bones in the child
connective tissue
tissue that supports and bind other body tissue and parts
cranial
pertaining to the skull or brain
cranial cavity
the cavity that contains the brain
cytology
the study of cells
cytoplasm
a gel-like substance that surrounds the nucleus of a cell. The cytoplasm contains cell organs, called organelles, which carry out the essential functions of the cell
deep
away from the surface
distal
away from or the farthest from the trunk of the body, or farthest from the point of origin of a body part
dorsal
pertaining to the back
dorsum
the back or posterior surface of a part; in the foot, the top of the foot
dysplasia
any abnormal development of tissues or organs
epigastric region
The region of the abdomen located between the right and left hypochondriac regions in the upper section of the abdomen, beneath the cartilage of the ribs
epithelial tissue
the tissue that covers the internal and external organs of the body; in also lines the vessels, body cavities, glands and body organs
frontal plane
any of the vertical planes passing through the body from the head to the feet, perpendicular to the sagittal planes and dividing the body into front and back portions
genes
segments of chromosomes that transmit hereditary characteristics
histologist
a medical scientist who specializes in the study of tissues
hyperplasia
an increase in the number of cells in a body part
hypochondriac region
the right and left regions of the upper abdomen, beneath the cartilage of the lower ribs; located on either side of the epigastric region
hypogastric region
the middle section of the lower abdomen, beneath the umbilical region
hypoplasia
incomplete or underdevloped organ or tissue, usually the result of a decrease in the number of cells.
inferior
below or downward toward the tail or feet
inguinal region
the right and left regions fo the lower section of the abdomen; also called the iliac region
lateral
toward the side of th ebody, away from the midline of the body
lumbar region
the right and left regions of the middle section of the abdomen
lumbar vertebrae
the largest and stronges of the vertebrae of the spinal column, located in the lower back. The lumbar vertebrae consist of 5 large segments of the movable part of the spinal column; identified as L1-L5
lysosomes
cell organs, or organelles, that contain various kinds of enzymes capable of breaking down all of the main components of cells; lysosomes destroy bacteria by digesting them
McBurney's point
A point on the right side of the abdomen, about two-thirds of the distance between the umbilicus and the anterior bony prominence of the hip
medial
toward the midline of the body
mediolateral
pertaining to the middle and side of a structure
membrane
a thin layer of tissue that covers a surface, lines a cavity, or divides a space, such as the abdominal membrane that lines the abdominal wall
midline of the body
the imaginary "line" that is created when the body is divided into equal right and left halves.
midsagittal plane
the plane that divides the body or a structure into right and left equal portions
mitochondria
cell organs, or organelles, which provide the energy needed by the cell to carry on its essential functions
Munro's point
a point on the left side of the abdomen, about halfway between the umbilicus and the anterior bony prominence of the hip
muscle tissue
the tissue that is capable of producing movement of the parts and organs of the body by contracting and relaxing its fibers
navel
the umbilicus, the belly button
neoplasia
the new and abnormal development of cells that may be benign or malignant
nervous tissue
tissue that transmits impulses throughout the body, thereby activating, coordinating, and controlling the many functions of the body
nucleus
the central controlling body within a living cell that is enclosed within the cell membrane
organ
tissues that are arranged together to perform a special function
pelvic cavity
the lower front cavity of the body, located beneath the abdominal cavity; contains the urinary bladder and reproductive organs
peritoneum
a specific, serous membrane that covers the entire abdominal wall of the body and is reflected over the contained viscera
plane
imaginary slices, or cuts made through the body as if a dividing sheet were passed through the body at a particular angle and in a particular direction, permitting a view from a different angle
plantar
pertaining to the sole or bottom of the foot
posterior
pertaining to the back of the body
pronation
a movement that allows the palms fo the hands to turn downward and backward
prone
lying facedown on the abdomen
proximal
toward or nearest to the trunk of the body, or nearest to the point of origin of a body part
ribosomes
cell organs, or organelles, that synthesize proteins; often called the cell's "protein factories"
sacrum
the singular, triangular-shaped bone that results from the fusion of the five individual sacral bones of the child
skeletal muscle
muscle that is attached to bone and is responsible for the movement of the skeleton
smooth muscle
muscle that is found n the walls of the hollow internal organs of the body such as the stomach and intestines
spinal cavity
the cavity that contains the nerves of the spinal cord; also known as the spinal canal
superficial
pertaining to the surface of the body, or near the surface
superior
above or upward toward the head
supination
a movement that allows the palms of the hands to turn upward or forward
supine
lying horizontally on the back, faceup
system
organs that work together to perform the many functions of the body as a whole
thoracic cavity
the chest cavity, which contains the lungs, heart, aorta, esophagus and trachea
thoracic vertebrae
the second segment of 12 vertebrae that make up the vertebral bones of the chest; identified as T1-T12
tissue
a group of cells that perform specialized functions
transverse plane
any of the planes cutting across the body perpendicular to the sagittal and the frontal planes, dividing the body into superior (upper) and inferior (lower) portions
umbilical region
the region of the abdomen located in the middle section of the abdomen, between the right and left lumbar regions and directly beneath the epigastric region
umbilicus
the navel; also called the belly button
ventral
pertaining to the front; belly side
visceral
pertaining to the internal organs
visceral muscle
smooth muscle; muscle that is found in the walls of the hollow internal organs of the body such as the stomach and intestines