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14 Cards in this Set

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Compare and contrast normal cells and malignant cells.
Both have 4 phases in replication and a 5th resting phase. Cancer cells have unregulated growth, lack of differentiation and they metastasize to other cells and organs.
How do cytotoxic antineoplastic drugs destroy malignant cells?
Targets RNA/DNA to prevent mitosis or induce apoptosis.
What is the rationale for combination chemotherapy in cancer?
Most effective when it is able to kill cells in all phases of the cell cycle. Drugs with different MoA.
What is the difference between ASA, NSAID's and Tylenol in the tx of inflammation?
NSAID's will work best because they inhibit COX, which is needed for the synthesis of prostaglandins without stomach upset. ASA good for arthritis, Tylenol not for inflammation.
What teaching would you give a client on high doses of ASA or Advil?
ASA - GI bleeding, Advil - gastric distress. Drink a lot of fluid
Why must a client take prednisone exactly as prescribed?
Blood sugar and electrolyte imbalance, drug interaction, rebound.
What is the difference between selective and nonselective chemo drugs?
Specific - target cells when they are actively dividing. Non-specific - dirsupt cells in the resting stage.
List some nursing interventions that would help prevent infection with the bone marrow suppression seen with antineo. Therapy
Monitor blood counts and lab values. Wash hands, no garnishes, flowers or fresh fruit.
Discuss nursing caring with the cancer client
pregnancy, bleeding, alopecia, fatigue, mouth sores
Nursing implications for the following: Methotrexate
antimetabolite, replaces the normal protein required for DNA synthesis (alopecia, stomatitis, hyperuricemia, hepatotoxicity, photosensitive) Must have leukovorin rescue, also monitor urine for pH level. If <7.0, pt needs sodium bicarb
Cytoxan
Alkylating, nonspecific, affect DNA synthesis by cross-linking DNA to inhibit cell reproduction (Aleopecia, gonadal suppression, hematuria) Watch for tissue necrosis
Adriamycin
antineoplastic, nonspecific - interferes with DNA and RNA synthesis (alopecia, stomatitis, EKG changes) Watch for myocardial toxicity
Vincristine/Vinblastine
Vinca alkaloid, specific, prevent mitosis (peripheral neuropathy, phlebitis, alopecia)
5 FU
same as methotrexate