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36 Cards in this Set

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How many types of tissue are there?
4
What are the names and functions of each tissue?
1. Nervous - internal communication (brain, spinal cord, & nerves)
2. Muscle - contracts to cause movement (muscle attaches to bone - skeletal; heart muscles; muscles of walls of hollow organs-smooth)
3. Epithelial - forms boundaries between different environments, protects, secretes, absorbs, & filters (skin; lining of GI tract & other hollow organs)
4. Connective - supports, protects, & binds other tissues together (bones; tendons; fat & other soft padding tissue)
Describe Epithelial tissue
Epithelial tissue consists of cells arranged in continuous sheets, in either single or multiple layers
What are the functions of epithelial tissue?
1. Selective barrier - to transfer substances in/out of body
2. secretory surfaces
3. protective surfaces - immune system and to resist abrasion
Describe epithelial cells
1. avascular (no blood vessels)
2. high rate of cell division
3. 1 side doesn't connect to anything - "free surface"
4. basement membrane serves as a boundary, connects or glues to underlining tissue
What causes carcinoma cancer in epithelial tissue?
Because it begins in the epithelial cells. Since epithelial cells divide so quickly, it can cause mutations to occur which in turn causes cancer
Concerning the covering and lining of epithelial tissue, how are the layers arranged?
1. simple - single layer
2. stratified - multiple layers
3. pseudostratified - appearance of multi layered, but is single layer and all cells are attached to the basement membrane
What is the cell shape?
1. squamous - flat cells
2. cuboidal - cubed cells
3. columnar - columned cells
Simple squamous epithelium, what are the functions and the locations?
1 layer, flat cells; thin membrane
Location: line the heart & blood vessels, air sacs of lungs, most serous membranes, & glomerular capsule of kidney
Function: diffusion, filtration
Simple cuboidal epithelium, functions and locations?
1 layer, cubed shaped cells; lumem (duct)
Location: kidney tubules, pancreas, bronchioles, salivary glands
Function: absorption, secretion
Simple columnar epithelium - nonciliated (no cilia), function and location?
1 layer, columned cells
Location: GI tract
Functions: secretion, absorbs (nutrients)
Simple columnar epithelium - ciliated (has cilia), function and location?
1 layer, columned cells
Location: uterine tubes (canal from uterus to ovary)
Function: movement (moves egg/embryo)
What is the difference between the simple columnar epithelium with cilia and without cilia?
Nonciliated has microvilli, which is a plasma membrane that increases surface area, and more surface area means it is more efficient to absorb and break down. The microvilli, like cilia, is made from cytoskeleton. The cilia helps movement, and is hairlike protein extensions.
Pseudostratified columnar epithelium, function and location?
Location: upper respiratory tract - nasal cavity-->beginning of lungs
Function: secretion, movement of debris, protection of lungs
Stratified squamous epithelium, location and function?
Multiple layers, flat cells, some have keratin
Location:
-with keratin - skin
-without keratin - lining of the mouth, anus, vagina
Function: protection from wear & tear, and pathogens, helps slow down water loss
Stratified cuboidal epithelium, location and function?
Multi layer, cubed shaped cells
Location: sweat glands (adult), seminiferous tubules (testes), & follicles of ovaries
Function: secretion, production of sperm, secrete ovarian hormones
Stratified columnar epithelium, location and function?
Multi layer, columned shaped cells
Location: urethral (track from bladder)
Functions: protection
Transitional epithelium, location and function?
Location: urinary bladder
Function: allows stretching; when bladder is relaxed it's stratified cuboidal, when bladder fills up, it extends and looks like stratified squamous
What are the functions of connective tissue?
Connective tissue is the most abundant and widely distributed tissues in the body.
Functions:
-binds, supports, & strengthens
-protects and insulates (fat tissue)
-compartmentalizes (muscles)
-transport system (blood)
-stored energy
-immunity
What are the components of connective tissue?
1. Extracellular matrix (outside of cell)
--a) protein fibers:
-collagen - most abundant protein in entire body
-elastic - a lot in ear
-reticular
--b) ground substance - consistency of tissue
-fluid - blood
-gel
-solid - bone
What are the components of connective tissue? (Cnt.)
2) Cells
-Fibroblasts - most common; produce collagen
-adipose - fat cell
-chrondrocytes - build cartilage
-osteocytes - found in bone
-WBCs:
-mast - respond to allergens
-macrophages - undergo phagocytosis-swallows bacteria
-plasma cells - secrete antibodies
Loose connective tissue: areolar connective, location and function?
Doesn't have a lot of extracellular matrix
Location: most abundant and has a wide distribution
Function: helps bind and support - "glue of the body"
Loose connective: adipose, location and function?
Little extracellular matrix
Location: wide distribution
Function: storage of fat (ortriglycerides)
Loose connective: reticular, location and function?
Has a lot of reticular fibers
Location: liver, spleen, lymph nodes - any organ that filters blood or lymph
Function: support and filtration of RBC, pathogens-makes a net to trap "foreign invaders"
Dense regular connective tissue, location and function?
A lot of extracellular matrix, less cells
Location: tendons and ligaments; tendons attach to muscle to bone, ligaments connect bone to bone
Function: strong attachment
(all fibers going the same direction, regular pattern of collagen)
Dense irregular connective tissue, location and function?
Few cells, a lot of extracellular matrix
Collagen arranged in all directions, no pattern
Location: dermis (2nd layer) of skin, bones, muscles, and joints
Function: strength, withstands stresses applied in unpredictable directions
Dense connective - elastic connective, location and function?
Has less cells, a lot of extracellular matrix & a lot of matrix fibers
Location: lung, aorta of the heart
Function: allows expansion & contraction
(In aorta - helps keep blood moving in the body, maintains blood pressure)
Hyaline cartilage, describe, location, and function
Main cells are chondrocytes
Hyaline is avascular
Incredibly dense network of collagen
Has lacuna - small cavity within tissue that acts as a home in the tissue for chondrocyte
Location: ends of bones (allows smooth joint movement), trachea, almost entire fetal skeleton with exception of skull, nose, & growth plate
Function: ends of bones - joint movement; trachea - helps hold airway open; fetal skeleton: precursor for bone
Fibrocartilage, location and function?
Has chondrocytes and lacuna
Location: intervertebral disk, meniscus
Function: support and helping to resist compression, absorb shock
Elastic cartilage, location and function?
Location: outer ear, epiglottis (back of throat, covers windpipe)
Function: maintain structure (shape), support, & protection
Bone tissue, location and function?
Connective tissue, solid, has collagen, osteocytes, and lacuna
Location: bones
Function: protection, movement, and support
Liquid connective tissue, location and function?
Blood and lymph
Location: heart and blood vessels; lymph - lymph vessels and lymph nodes
Function: blood - transport and immunity; lymph - immunity
Skeletal muscle tissue, characteristics and function?
Characteristics - striated pattern (light & dark bands), multiple nuclei (because cells are longer than average) & a lot of mitochondria, voluntary
Function: movement, posture, support, and heat production
Cardiac muscle tissue, characteristics and function?
Characteristics: striated (light & dark bands), branched, and involuntary
Function: pump blood
Smooth muscle tissue, characteristics and location?
Characteristics: no striation, 1 nucleus per cell, involuntary
Location: iris of eyes (controls how much light enters eyes), walls of organs (such as digestive), and airways to lungs
Nervous tissue, what are the cells?
1. Neurons - cell body & processes, conduct electrical impulses (carry signals throughout body), found within spinal cord and brain
2. Neurological - support cells, take care of neurons, wraps around neurons and forms myelin sheath