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48 Cards in this Set

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Who is Robert Walpole?
- British prime minister Robert Walpole is like “hey let’s let the colonies have free reign in their economy, and they’ll flourish”, he didn’t really enforce things like navigation acts
What is the Privy Council?
- central administrative agency for gov as whole, they were the admiralty and the treasury
Who was Benjamin Franklin?
- inventor of lightening rods
- decathador, lots of other stuff
- scientific
- helped edit declaration
- representative @ Continental Congress for Pennsylvania
What is New France?
- french empire including Louisiana territory, Canada areas
- inhabited by trappers & Jesuits hoping to convert Indians, & farmers who wanted mroe southern longer growing seasons
- claimed for these people so they could trap/convert/farm more
What were Paltry Wages?
- British soldiers paid very little, paid w/ PALTRY WAGES :D :D
- reason why they were jerks and stole the colonials' stuff
What was the Albany Plan?
- idea proposed by Benjamin Franklin suggesting that the colonies be united under one federal type gov to protect it from indians and deal w/ other issues
What was the French Indian War?
- 7 years war
- french + indians vs. english + indians
- ended up being world wide
- ended w/ brit win + brit hegemony
- frenchies had to give up a lot of their NTH Amer land, you know nova scotia and stuff

- - 3 phases:
1) 1754-1756; mainly local, colonists got on by themselves
a. the britts tried to help but failed so hard it didn’t make a difference, they (under General Edward Braddock) couldn’t keep french reinforcements from docking or capture back the site Washington lost at Fort Necessity
b. all the other indians allied w/ french (‘cept Iroquois who were forced by english to declare war on french, took part in no hostilities)
2) 1756-1758; spread to Europe, West Indies, India
a. French allied w/ Austria, English allied w/ Prussia
b. British were losing hard in Nth America, William Pitt (secretarty of state) took control of war, gave orders to colonists, forced them to serve, house soldiers, give supplies and equipment, all w/o compensation, made colonists pissed b/c they had gotten along w/o brits before, had lots of riots against.
3) 1758-1763; Pitt relaxed many outrageous policies
a. agreed to compensated for goods, let colonieal assemblies recriut soldiers
b. began seizing more forts b/c french had bad crops year & unable to sustain forces
c. Siege of Quebec – marked beginning of end of American phase of war

then peace of paris w/ the frenchies losing their land
Who was Louis XIV?
-
What was Missionary Zeal?
- missionary, specifically French Jesuits, went to the Indians in the wide wild wilderness and converted them ;D
- led the frenchies to establish new france & ally w/ Iroquois nation
Who was Louis Joliet?
- also known as Louis Joliet, was a French Canadian explorer known for his discoveries in North America. Jolliet and Jesuit Father Jacques Marquette, a Catholic priest and missionary, were the first Europeans to explore and map the much of the Mississippi River in 1673.
Who was Father Jacques Marquette?
- sometimes known as Père Marquette, was a French Jesuit missionary who founded Michigan's first European settlement, Sault Ste. Marie, and later founded St. Ignace, Michigan. In 1673 Father Marquette and Louis Jolliet were the first Europeans to see and map the northern portion of the Mississippi River.
Who was Rene Robert Cavalier?
- a French explorer. He explored the Great Lakes region of the United States and Canada, the Mississippi River, and the Gulf of Mexico. La Salle claimed the entire Mississippi River basin for France.
What was The Iroquois Confederacy?
- the Five Nations, as it was composed of the Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga, and Seneca nations, later Tuscarora joined
- had much power in north east coast
- involved in French Indian war, allied w/ british
What was King Williams War?
- The first of the French and Indian Wars, King William's War (1689–97) was the name used in the English colonies in America to refer to the North American theater of the War of the Grand Alliance (1688–97). It was fought between England, France, and their respective American Indian allies in the colonies of Canada (New France), Acadia, and New England.
- caused by growing tension between colonists & nroth france frenchy colonists
What was Fort Necessity?
- occurred on July 3, 1754
- early battle of the French and Indian War.
- fail, headed by young general Washington :D
- frenchies came & scared the wits out of them & they surrendered
Who was William Pitt?
- Prime minister of England during 7 yrs war
What was the Battle of Quebec?
- marked beginning of end of American phase of French Indain war
- super awsome british win, but the frenchies didn't give up after they lost, but niether did we, yay!!
What was the Peace of Paris 1763?
- signed on 10 February 1763, by the kingdoms of Great Britain, France and Spain, with Portugal in agreement. It ended the French and Indian War/Seven Years' War.[1] The treaty marked the beginning of an extensive period of British dominance outside Europe.
What was the Proclamation of 1763?
- banned colonials from crossing appalachians into indian territory to settle land
What was the Sugar Act?
- tax on colonials
- raised price on sugar to collect revenues from colonies for war depts + indian protection
What was the Currency Act?
- act banning all printing/use of printed money by/from colonial governments
Who were the Paxton Boys?
- fought against colonial gov. for less taxes & protection from the Indians
What was the Regulatory Movement?
- farmers of Carolina upcountry in revolt against high colonial taxes, underrepresented in assemblies so took up arms & resisted by force, army of militia men (assembled by governer) beat them (colonial taxes = cause)
What was the Stamp Act?
- require for stamp on most printed documents
- raising revenue for engalnd war debts
What was the Virginia Resolves?
- series of resolutions passed by the Virginia General Assembly in response to the Stamp Act of 1765.
- said that Virginians had same right as English, no taxation w/o reps, etc
Who were the Sons Of Liberty?
- group of
Who wre the Sons Of Liberty?
- group of rebels
- against stamp act, etc.
- burned stamps
- harrased sellers
Who were the Tory’s?
- Loyalists?
- more conservative royalist supporters of Charles II, who endorsed a strong monarchy as a counterbalance to the power of Parliament
what was the Mutiny Act?
- act passed yearly by Parliament for governing the British Army. It was originally passed in 1689 in response to the mutiny of a large portion of the army which stayed loyal to the Stuarts upon William III taking the crown of England
- add-ons = quartering acts
What was the Quartering Act?
- used by the British forces in the American colonies to ensure that British soldiers had adequate housing and provisions. These acts were amendments to the Mutiny Act, which had to be renewed annually by Parliament.[1] Originally intended as a response to problems that arose during Britain's victory in the Seven Years War they later became a source of tension between inhabitants of the Thirteen Colonies and the government in London.
What were the Townshend Acts?
- series of acts passed in 1767 by Parliament
- named for Charles Townshend
- purpose was to raise revenue in colonies to pay the salaries of governors and judges so that they would be independent of colonial control, to create a more effective means of enforcing compliance with trade regulations, to punish the province of New York for failing to comply with the 1765 Quartering Act, and to establish the precedent that the British Parliament had the right to tax the colonies
What were the Navigation Acts?
- series of laws that restricted the use of foreign shipping for trade between England (after 1707 Great Britain) and its colonies, which started in 1651. Later, they were one of several sources of resentment in the American colonies against Great Britain, helping cause the American Revolutionary War
What was the Boston Massacre?
- incident that led to the deaths of five civilians at the hands of British troops on March 5, 1770, the legal aftermath of which helped spark the rebellion in some of the British American colonies, which culminated in the American Revolutionary War. A heavy British military presence in Boston led to a tense situation that boiled over into incitement of brawls between soldiers and civilians and eventually led to troops discharging their muskets after being attacked by a rioting crowd. Three civilians were killed at the scene of the shooting, eleven were injured, and two died after the incident
Who was John Adams?
- American politician and political philosopher and the second President of the United States
- delegate from Massachusetts to the Continental Congress
Who were the Loyalists?
- American colonists who remained loyal to the Kingdom of Great Britain (and the British monarchy) during the American Revolutionary War. They were often referred to as Tories, Royalists, or King's Men by the Patriots, those who supported the revolution
Who were the Patriots?
- supporters of independance in colonies
- fought in malitias et
What was the Gaspee Incident?
- grumpy colonists jumped a britt ship in the harbor and burnt it down!
What was the Tea Act?
- Act of the Parliament of Great Britain to expand the British East India Company's monopoly on the tea trade to all British Colonies, selling excess tea at a reduced price.
- put colonial tea merchants out of business
Who were the Daughters of Liberty?
- group of women who organized boycotts on tea and other goods
What was the Boston Tea Party?
- after officials in Boston refused to return three shiploads of taxed tea to Britain, a group of colonists boarded the ships and destroyed the tea by throwing it into Boston Harbor
What were the Coercive Acts?
- The Boston Port Act, the first of the acts passed in response to the Boston Tea Party, closed the port of Boston until the East India Company had been repaid for the destroyed tea and until the king was satisfied that order had been restored. Colonists objected that the Port Act punished all of Boston rather than just the individuals who had destroyed the tea, and that they were being punished without having been given an opportunity to testify in their own defense.

The Massachusetts Government Act provoked even more outrage than the Port Act because it unilaterally altered the government of Massachusetts to bring it under control of the British government. Under the terms of the Government Act, almost all positions in the colonial government were to be appointed by the governor or the king. The act also severely limited the activities of town meetings in Massachusetts. Colonists outside Massachusetts feared that their governments could now also be changed by the legislative fiat of Parliament.

The Administration of Justice Act allowed the governor to move trials of accused royal officials to another colony or even to Great Britain if he believed the official could not get a fair trial in Massachusetts. Although the act stipulated that witnesses would be paid for their travel expenses, in practice few colonists could afford to leave their work and cross the ocean to testify in a trial. George Washington called this the "Murder Act" because he believed that it allowed British officials to harass Americans and then escape justice.[4] Some colonists believed the act was unnecessary because British soldiers had been given a fair trial following the Boston Massacre in 1770, with future Founding Father John Adams representing the Defense.

The Quartering Act applied to all of the colonies, and sought to create a more effective method of housing British troops in America. In a previous act, the colonies had been required to provide housing for soldiers, but colonial legislatures had been uncooperative in doing so. The new Quartering Act allowed a governor to house soldiers in other buildings if suitable quarters were not provided. While many sources claim that the Quartering Act allowed troops to be billeted in occupied private homes, historian David Ammerman's 1974 study claimed that this is a myth, and that the act only permitted troops to be quartered in unoccupied buildings.[5] Although many colonists found the Quartering Act objectionable, it generated the least protest of the Coercive Acts.

The Quebec Act was a piece of legislation unrelated to the events in Boston, but the timing of its passage led colonists to believe that it was part of the program to punish them. The act enlarged the boundaries of what was then the colony of "Canada" (roughly consisting of today's Canadian provinces of Quebec and Ontario as well as the Great Lakes' American watershed), removed references to the Protestant faith in the oath of allegiance, and guaranteed free practice of the Roman Catholic faith. The Quebec Act offended a variety of interest groups in the British colonies. Land speculators and settlers objected to the transfer of western lands previously claimed by the colonies to a non-representative government. Many feared the establishment of Catholicism in Quebec, and that the French Canadians were being courted to help oppress British Americans.
What was the First Continental Congress?
o First Continental Congress = made b/c intolerable acts, all colonies except Georgia represented













- What happened at Lexington and Concord?






































 Passed 5 major decisions:
• Rejected plan to be union under England
• Made list of grievances and petitioned for all of their repeals
• Readied militias
• Stopped ALL trade w/ britian
• Agreed to meet continually
What was the Battle of Lexington and Concord?
- General Thomas Gage – commander of a British garrison, cautious, wanted reinforcements, heard there was a warehouse full of gunpowder in concord, went to get rid of it, there were several dozen minutemen there, in the end the gunpowder had gotten moved to somewhere else, but the British burned the rest that was left and by the end the British had lost more people than the colonists
o The shots fired at Lexington were what made the rest (at least most) of the people who were iffy all riled up 
o And so, though many didn’t know it, The Revolution Begins!
Who was General Thomas Gage?
General Thomas Gage – commander of a British garrison, cautious, wanted reinforcements, heard there was a warehouse full of gunpowder in concord, went to get rid of it, there were several dozen minutemen there, in the end the gunpowder had gotten moved to somewhere else, but the British burned the rest that was left and by the end the British had lost more people than the colonists
o The shots fired at Lexington were what made the rest (at least most) of the people who were iffy all riled up 
o And so, though many didn’t know it, The Revolution Begins!
Who was Paul Revere?
was an American silversmith and a patriot in the American Revolution.
- messenger
- served as an officer in the Penobscot Expedition, one of the most disastrous campaigns of the American Revolutionary War, a role for which he was later exonerated. After the war, he was early to recognize the potential for large-scale manufacturing of metal.
What was John Dickinson Letters to a farmer?
- John Dickinson defend the idea of no taxation w/o representation
- To tax people w/o consent violated English law
- these circulated through colonies
What was the The Massachusetts Circular?
- a statement written by Samuel Adams and passed by the Massachusetts House of Representatives in February 1768 in response to the Townshend Acts
- argued that the Townshend Acts were unconstitutional because the colony of Massachusetts was not represented in Parliament
- made clear that he was not advocating colonial representation in Parliament: because the American Colonies were "separated by an ocean of a thousand leagues" from Great Britain, he thought it was impractical for them to be properly represented in Parliament.[4] Instead, Adams argued in favor of the previous arrangement, where the colonies were taxed only by their own provincial assemblies in which they were already represented.
Who was Samuel Adams?
- wrote Massachusetts Circular Letter demanding to let colonies tax themselves