Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/132

Click to flip

132 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what is the title of chapter 1?
struggle for control
When was the end of the British struggle to control the Western for territories?
1755
when was the deportation off the Acadians?
1755
who were the two generals?
General Wolfe and General Montcalm
who was the French general?
General Montcalm
who was the British general?
general Wolfe
When was seven years War?
1756
When was a conquest of Louisbourg?
1758
When was a conquest of Québec
1759
when was the conquest of Montréal?
1760
when was the Treaty of Paris?
1763
when was the British military rule and French rule in Québec?
1763
what treaty concluded the seven years war?
the Treaty of Paris
what did the royal proclamation of 1763 create?
the original province of Quebec
when did the British decided to assimilate the French into the British Empire?
1763
when the Britain decided on a policy of keeping Québec both French and British?
1774
what is the Québec act?
Britain decided on a policy of keeping Québec both French and British
what do major areas to the French and the British struggle to control?
The Fur Country and the Atlantic Region
what two countries were always at war?
Britain and France
was was the result of the Treaty of Paris in 1763?
All French possessions North America except for the tiny island's office a year and Miquelon off the coast of Newfoundland became British.
what is the reason for the control of Fur country dispute?
the British desire to control the Fur trade and to gain farmlands and the French desire to control the Fur trade and to prevent British expansion into the western part of North America
why was there a fight to control the Atlantic region?
rich fishing areas and strategic location
When was the Hudson's Bay Company established?
1670
the French and British depended on who to supply furs?
the native peoples
what are the two ways that the British fur trade was different from the French fur trade?
the British waited for the furs to come to them and the British group of them were run by merchants that put their money together to share the risks and profits
was a large or small percentage of Canada's native peoples whoever had contact with the Europeans?
small
name some European products
pots, pans, metal weapons
Many Native hunting bands gave up their __________ lifestyles.
migratory
Pelts could be traded for goods such as…
guns, ammunition, food, clothing, metal pots and pans.
What does migratory mean?
moving from place to place according to the season
What 2 things did the French do to protect their fur trade?
First they took military action against the British and second they expanded inland.
When were the armed clashes between British and French over the Fur trade?
1679-1713
Was either the French or British able to take control of the Fur trade in the Hudon's Bay from 1679-1713?
No
What treaty made all Hudson's Bay ports British property?
The Treaty of Utrecht
New France at one point extended from the Gulf of the St. Lawrence to the _____________________.
Gulf of Mexico
What task was Pierre La Verendrye given?
To establish French trading ports inland.
Which group, the British or French waited for pelts to be brought to them?
The British.
Who sent Henry Kelsey to Saskatchewan and Alberta?
The Hudson's Bay Company
Why did Native groups stop travelling to the Hudson's Bay?
They could trade with inland French fur trading posts
Was Henry Kelsey successful in persuading Native people to bring their furs to the Hudson's Bay posts?
No, he was not.
Who was Anthony Henday?
A trader sent by the Hudon's Bay Company.
Anthony Henday travelled all the way to what province?
Alberta
Who was the first trader to see large herds of buffalo on the praries?
Anthony Henday
Louisbourg was the center of French p--------
power
What did France lose in the Treaty of Utrecht
Acadia and Newfoundland
Newfoundland was located near to what great fishing area?
The Grand Banks
What river is the doorway to North America?
St. Lawrence
Was Louisbourg well constructed?
No.
What military port did the British construct?
Halifax
Did the British see Louisbourg as a threat?
Yes, that is why they built Halifax
How was Halifax built?
It was a townsite surrounded by five stockades
When did the British build Halifax?
1749
When did the French build Louisbourg?
1720
What was built first - Halifax or Louisbourg?
Louisbourg
Did the Acadians remain neutral?
Yes
Would the Acadians take an Oath of unqualified allegiance?
No, they remained neutral but would not swear allegiance to Britain
What would an unqualified oath mean?
You would have to fight for whoever you swear an oath to
In the 1750s what war war on the horizon?
The seven years war
In the 1750s did the people of North America know that a war between Britain and France was going to happen?
Yes, they knew it was coming
In the 1750s who was seen as a threat to the British in Nova Scotia?
The Acadians
Who decided that the Acadians were a threat to the British?
Governor Lawrence
What did governor Lawrence decide to do?
Deport the Acadians
Where were deported acadians taken?
To the 13 colonies and Louisiana
What happened to the property of the deported Acadians?
Their homes were burned and their property was confiscated
When did the major deportation of the Acadians take place
1755
How many Acadians were deported?
11000
When was the Seven Years War?
1756
Where did the French keep their troops during the Seven Years war?
In Europe
Where did Britain send troops duing the Seven Years War?
To North America
Who had more troops in North America during the Seven Years War?
The British had 7-8 times more troops in North America
What war had a great effect on the history of North America?
The seven years war
During the Seven Years War the French felt that the most important battlegrounds would be in ____________ and so kept their troops there.
Europe
What three fronts did the British plan to attack on during the Seven Years War?
Louisbourg, Ohio river valley, and Quebec
Control of the St. Lawrence depended on control of ____________
Louisbourg
The French in Louisbourg awoke one morning to ________ British ships in the harbour.
200
The French had many --- ----- in the Ohio Valley
Fur Forts
___________was the centre of French power in North America
Quebec
What British general succeded in taking Quebec?
General Wolfe
Who was the leader of the French forces?
General Montcalm
When did the British take Quebec?
1759
When did the British take Louisbourg?
1758
What was taken first Quebec or Louisbourg?
Louisbourg
While entering the St. Lawrence what do you come to first to Quebec or Louisbourg?
Louisbourg
Montcalm took his men and met on the ____________________
Plains of Abraham
The battle on the plains of Abraham took only ________ hour(s).
one
Both generals ___________ on the Plains of Abraham
died
Both generals did not know ….
who won the battle as they both died during it
After the British took Quebec the French retreated to ________________
Montreal
The first ship to come down the St. Lawrence with reinforcements would ….
determine the winner of the
In Septermber 1760 British troops marched into __________ burning crops along the way
Montreal
This French governor realized that the French could not win and so surrendered to the British.
Vaudreuil
Rather than surrender French flags the French leaders ordered that they be ____________
Burned
Montcalm thought that Vaundreuil could not be a good leader because he was -----
born in New France and had no experience of European warfare. Basically he was a snob.
Montcalm was not experienced in what type of warfare?
Guerilla
What is Guerilla warfare?
fighting in small bands, making sudden attacks and ambushes on the enemy
There is painting that shows Montcalm dying on the battlefeild. Where and when did he really die?
He died the next day not on the Plains of Abraham
The Plains of Abraham were fields next to what city?
Quebec
Both Wolfe and Montcalm joined the army …….
at a young age
Wolfe spend much of his time in 1759 doing what?
Camping along the St. Lawrence near Quebec looking for a way to take the city.
Why did Gereral Wolfes men win on the Plains of Abraham?
The were well disciplined and were able to fight on an open battlefield rather than the Guerilla style preferred by the French.
Why did people not want to be in the painting with General Wolfe?
He was not well liked.
When the Seven Years war was over in North America was it was not over in___________
Europe.
Until the Seven Years war was over in Europe the British instituted what?
Military Rule
When was British Military rule?
1760-3
The Canadiens during British Military Rule that New France would be returned to ______________
France
Who was General Amherst?
British Comander in Chief during the Seven Years War
British Military Rule was not a __________ military occupation
Harsh
Until a peace treaty was signed there was __________ about what in New Frnace?
uncertainty, daily life
What had happened to the farms of the Canadien militia during the Seven Years War?
They had been burned.
The French were worried about keeping their ___________ ___________ religion after the Seven Years war.
Roman Catholic
Who ran the educational system in New France and was deported?
The Jesuits
Were the nuns deported after the Seven Years war?
No
Many of the business people of New France were from France. What happened to their businesses after the returned to France after the Seven Years War?
British from the 13 colonies took over these businesses
What 5 aspects of life remained the same for the French immediately after the Seven Years War?
French language and religion, French civils law, preists, seigneurial system
When the Seven Years war was over in Europe this peace treaty was signed.
Treaty of Paris
What were the Effects of the Treaty (5)?
Eonomic stability, military curts use French civil law, French would not be deported, Roman Catholic Religion was maintained, seigneurial sytem was maintained
What is the difference between civil and criminal law?
Civil is to do with porperty rights or private citizens and Ciminal is to do with public wrongs.
What does ethnocentric mean?
You think that you have a superior culture.
The British believed they were superior to these two groups..
The French and Native people
What 2 Islands did the French get to keep?
St. Pierre and Miquelon
Even after the war the British felt that the French were a __________
Threat
IMPORTANT: What were the five alternatives that the British had in dealing with the French?
Deportation, Status-quo, Isolation, assimilation, Biculturalism
Explain Deportation, Status-quo, Isolation, assimilation, Biculturalism
See page 80
The Royal Proclamation outlined what?
What was to be done in Quebec after the Seven Years War
What was the main aim of the Quebec act?
To assimilate the French into British culture
How did the British propose to assimilate the French in The Proclamation of 1763?
ensure British customs, laws and language, attract British to Quebec, limit size of Quebec cutting the fur traderd out of the western fur trade, reassure native people that they had the Ohio valley to themselves.
The British knew that the Native population was unhappy because of what?
People from the 13 colonies were going into their space (the Ohio Valley)
Proclamation of 1763: Settlement pattern
Settlement in the Ohio and Missisippi valleys was forbidden. You need a licence to enter that area.
Proclamation of 1763: language
French would continue to be used
Proclamtion fo 1763: Religion
Roman Catholic Religion would continue but have no official status, catholics were barred from the legal profession
Proclamation of 1763: Government
Quebec ruled by British using British laws except French Civil law
Was the Proclamation successful?
No, the French were not assimilated