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44 Cards in this Set

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Plasma
the cell-free, fluid portion of blood, which contains all the clotting factors
Serum
fluid portion of the blood, which is free of all cell and clotting factors
Gamma-gobulin fraction
the electrophoretic fraction of serum that contains most of the immunoglobulin classes
Immunoglobulin
an antibody or a heavy or light polypeptide chain that is part of an antibody molecule
Light (L) chains
immunoglobulin polypeptides of the lambda or kappa type that join with heavychain polypeptides to form the antibody heterodimer
Heavy (H) chains
the larger polypeptide of an antibody molecule; it is composed of one variable domain and three or four constant domains;
there are five major classes of heavy chains in humans which determines the isotype of an antibody
Fab fragment
"fragment antigen binding";
a monovalent antigen binding fragment of an immunoglobulin molecule that consists of one light chain and part of one heavy chain, linked by an interchain disulfide bond
Fc fragment
"fragment crystallizable"; a crystallizable, non-antigen-binding fragment of an immunoglobulin molecule that consists of the carboxyl terminal portions of both heavy chains and possess binding sites for Fc receptors and the C1q component of complement
Multiple myeloma
a plasma cell cancer
Myeloma cell
a cancerous plasma cell
Myeloma protein
a monoclonal immunoglobulin produced by a myeloma cell
Benze-Jones proteins
protein found in high concentrations in the urine of patients with multiple myeloma; usually an Ig light chain or fragment thereof
Plasmacytomas
a plasma-cell cancer
Variable (V) regions
the amino terminal domain of an immunoglobulin molecule;
it consists of 100-110 amino acids and contains the CDRs that make up the antigen binding site
Constant (C) regions
the nearly invariant portion of the immunoglobulin molecule that does not contain antigen-binding domains;
the sequence of amino acids in the constant region determines the isotype of heavy chains (alpha, gamma, delta, epsilon, mu)and the type of light chains (lambda, kappa)
Isotype
an antibody class which is determined by the constant region sequence of the heavy chain;
the five human isotypes exhibit both structural and functional differences;
also refers to the set of isotypic determinants that is carried by all members of a species
Immunoglobulin fold
characteristic structure in immunoglobulins that consists of a domain of 100-110 amino acids folded into two beta pleated sheets, each containing three or four antiparallel beta strands, and stabilized by an intrachain disulfide bond
Hypervariable regions
one of three regions within the variable domain of each chain in immunoglobulins and T-cell receptors that exhibits the most sequence variability and contributes the most to the antigen-binding site;
also called CDR
Complementarity-determining regions (CDRs)
portions of the variable regions of antibody moleculesthat protrude from the V domains and have the potential to contact antigens;
the antigen-binding sites of antibody molecules are composed of CDRs
Framework regions (FR)
a relatively conserved sequence of amino acids located on either side of the hypervariable regions in the variable domains of immunoglobulin heavy and light chains
Hinge regions
the segment of an immunoglobulin heavy chain between the Fc and Fab regions;
it gives flexibility to the molecule and allows the two antigen-binding sites to function independently
Secreted immunoglobulins (sIg)
the form of antibody that is secreted by cells of the B lineage, especially plasma cells;
this form of Ig lacks a transmembrane domain
Membrane bound immunoglobulins (mIg)
a form of an antibody that is bound to a cell as a transmembrane protein;
acts as the antigen-specific receptor of B cells
Opsonization
deposition of opsonins on an antigen, thereby promoting a stable adhesive contact with an appropriate phagocytic cell
Complement system
a group of serum proteins that participates in an enzymatic cascade, ultimately generating the cytolytic MAC
Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC)
a cell mediated reaction in which nonspecific cytotoxic cells that express Fc receptors (e.g., NK cells, neutrophils, macrophages) recognize bound antibody on a target cell and subsequently cause lysis of the target cell
Transcytosis
the movement of antibody molecules (polymeric IgA or IgM) across epithelial layers mediated by the poly-Ig receptor
Passive immunization
the acquisition of immunity by the receipt of preformed antibodies rather than by active production of antibodies after exposure to antigen
J (joining) chain
a polypeptide that links the heavy chains of monomeric units of polymeric IgM and di- or trimeric IgA;
the linkage is by disulfide bonds between the J chain and the carboxyl terminal cysteines of IgM or IgA heavy chains
Poly-Ig receptor
a receptor for polymeric Ig molecules that is expressed on the basolateral surface of most mucosal epithelial cells;
it transports polymeric Ig across epithelia
Polyclonal antibody
a mixture of antibodies produced by a variety of B-cell clones that have recognized the same antigens;
although all of the antibodies react with the immunizing antigen, they differ from each other in amino acid sequence
P-K reaction
local skin reaction to allergen by a normal subject at the site of injected IgE from an allergic individual;
no longer used
Allotype
a set of allotypic determinants characteristic of some but not all members of a species
Idiotope
a single antigenic determinant in the variable domains of an antibody or T-cell receptor;
generated by the unique amino acid sequence specific for each antigen
Idiotype
the set of antigenic determinants (idiotopes) characterizing a unique antibody or T-cell receptor
B-cell receptor (BCR)
complex comprising a membrane-bound immunoglobulin molecule and two associated signal-transudcing Igalpha/Igbeta molecules
Fc receptor (FcR)
cell-surface receptor specific for the Fc portion of certain classes of immunoglobulin;
present on lymphocytes, mast cells, macrophages, and other accessory cells
Neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn)
an MHC class I-like molecule that controls IgG half-life and transports IgG across the placenta
Immunoglobulin superfamily
group of proteins that contain immunoglobulinfold domains,or structurally related domains;
includes immunoglobulins, T-cell receptors, MHC molecules, and numerous other membrane molecules
Monoclonal antibody
homogeneous preparations of antibody molecules, produced by a single clone of B lineage cells, often a hybridoma, all of which have the same antigenic specificity
Hybridoma
a clone of hybrid cells formed by fusion of normal lymphocytes with myeloma cells;
it retains the properties of the normal cell to produce antibodies or T-cell receptors but exhibits the immortal growth characteristic of myeloma cells;
used to produce monoclonal antibodies
Immunotoxins
highly cytotoxic agent produced by conjugating an antibody with highly toxic agent, usually a protein such as ricin;
contains two peptides, an inhibitory chain and a membrane-binding chain
Abzyme
a monoclonal antibody that has catalytic activity
Allotypic determinant
an antigenic determinant that varies among members of a species;
the constant regions of antibodies possess allotypic determinants