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212 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Cell
the basic unit of all living things.
Protoplasm
a colorless jellylike substance in which food elements are present.
Nucleus
dense, active protoplasm found in the center of the cell.
Cytoplasm
all the protoplasm of a cell except that which is in the nucleus.
Cell Membrane
encloses the protoplasm and permits soluble substances to enter and leave the cell.
Mitosis
cells reproduce by dividing into two identical cells called daughter cells.
Metabolism
chemical process that takes place in living organisms. *cells are nourished and carry out their activities*
Anabolism
constructive metabolism process of building up larger molecules from smaller ones.
Catabolism
the phase of metabolism in which complex compounds within the cells are broken down into smaller ones.
Tissue
a collection of similar cells that perform a particular function.
Connective Tissue
supports, protects and binds together other tissues of the body.
Epithelial Tissue
a protective covering on body surfaces.
Liquid Tissue
carries food, waste products, and hormones through the body.
Muscular Tissue
contracts and moves the various parts of the body.
Nerve Tissue
carries messeges to and from the brain and controls and coordinates all bodily functions.
Organs
groups of tissues designed to perform a specific function.
Brain
controls the body.
Eyes
control vision.
Heart
circulates the blood.
Kidneys
excrete water and waste product.
Lungs
supply oxygen to the blood.
Liver
removes toxic products of digestion.
Skin
forms external protective covering of the body.
Somach & Intestines
digest food.
Systems
groups of bodily organs acting together to perform one or more functions.
Skeletal System
the physical foundation of the body.
Joint
the connection between two or more bones of the skeleton.
Cranium
an oval bony case that protects the brain.
Occipital Bone
hindmost bone of the skull; forms the back of the skull and above the nape.
Parietal Bones
form the sides and crown(top) of the cranium.
Frontal Bone
forms the forehead.
Temporal Bones
forms the sides of the head in the ear region.
Ethmoid Bone
light, spongy bone between the eye sockets that forms part of the nasal cavities.
Sphenoid Bone
joins all the bones of the cranium together.
Nasal Bones
forms the bridge of the nose.
Lacrimal Bones
small, thin bones that comrise the eye sockets.
Zygomatic or Malar Bones
form the prominence of the cheeks.
Maxillae
bones of the upper jaw.
Mandible
forms the lower jawbone; the largest and strongest bone of the face.
Vomer
flat thin bone that forms part of the nasal septum.
Palatine Bones
form the hard palate of the mouth.
Inferior Concha
bones which make up the side walls of the nasal cavity.
Hyoid Bone
"Adam's Apple" U-shaped bone at the base of the tongue that supports the tongue and its muscles.
Cervical Vertebrae
the seven bones of the top part of the vertebral column located in the neck region.
Thorax
or chest; an elastic, bony cage made up of the sternum, spine, 12 pairs of ribs, and connective cartilage.
Sternum
breastbone
Clavicle
collarbone
Scapula
shoulder blade
Humerus
the uppermost and largest bone of the arm; extending from the elbo to the shoulder.
Ulna
the inner and larger bone of the forearm, attached to the wrist and located on the side of the little finger.
Radius
the smaller bone in the forearm on the same side as the thumb.
Carpus
the wrist, a flexible joint composed of eight small, irregular bones.
Phalanges
the bones in the fingers.
Metacarpus
the palm, consisting of five long slender bones called metacarpal bones.
Muscular system
covers, shapes, and supports the skeleton tissue.
Striated Muscles (skeletal or voluntary muscles)
also called skeletal or voluntary muscles; attached to the bones and are controlled by the will.
Nonstriated Muscles (involuntary, visceral, or smooth muscles)
also called involuntary, visceral, or smooth muscles; function automatically, without conscious will.
Cardiac Muscle
the involuntary muscle that makes up the heart.
Origin
the part of the muscle that does not move; it is attached to the skeleton and is usually part of the skeletal muscle.
Insertion
the part of the muscle at the more movable attachment to the skeleton.
Belly
the middle part of the muscle.
Epicranius or Occipito-frontalis
broad muscle that covers the top of the skull.
Occipitalis
back of the epicranius; muscle that draws the scalp backward.
Frontalis
anterior portion of the eppiicranius; muscle of the scalp that raised the eyebrows, draws the scalp forward, and causes wrinkles across the forehead.
Aponeurosis
tendon that connects the occipitalis and the frontalis.
Auricularis Superior
muscle above the ear that draws the ear upward.
Auricularis Anterior
muscle in front of the ear that draws the ear forward.
Auricularis posterior
muscle behind the ear that draws the ear backward.
Masseter & Temporalis
muscles that coordinate in opening and closing the mouth and are sometimes referred to as the 'chewing muscles'.
Platysma
broad muscle extending from the chest and shoulder muscles to the side of the chin; responsible for lowering the lower jaw and lip.
Sternocleidomastoideus
muscle of the neck that lowers and rotates the head.
Corrugator Muscle
muscle located beneath the frontalis and orbiclaris oculi that draws the eyebrow down and wrinkles the forehead vertically.
Orbicularis Oculi
ring muscle of the eye socket; closes the eye.
Procerus
covers the bridge of the nose, lowers the eyebrows, and causes wrinkles across the bridge of the nose.
Buccinator
thin, flat muscle of the cheek between the upper and lower jaw that compresses the cheeks and expels air between the lips.
Depressor Labii Inferioris
also known as quadratus labii inferioris, a muscle surrounding the lower lip that depresses the lower lip and draws it to one side.
Levator Anguli Oris
also know as caninus, a muscle that raised the angle of the mouth and draws it inward.
Levator Labii Superioris
also know as auadratus labii superioris, a muscle surrounding the upper lip that elevates the upper lip and dilates the nostrils.
Mentalis
muscle that elevates the lower lip and raises and wrinkles the skin of the chin.
Orbicularis Oris
flad band around the upper and lower lips that compresses, contracts, puckers, and wrinkles the lips.
Risorius
muscle that draws the corner of the mouth out and back, as in grinning.
Triangularis
muscle extending alongside the chin that pulls down the corner of the mouth.
Zygomaticus Major & Minor
muscles extending from the zygomatic bone to the angle of the mouth that elevate the lip, as in laughing.
Latissimus Dorsi
broad, flat muscle covering the back of the neck and upper and middle region of the back, controlling the shoulder blade and the swinging movements of the arm.
Pectoralis Major & Minor
muscles of the chest that assist the swinging movements of the arm.
Serratus Anterior
muscle of the chest that assists in breathing and in raising the arm.
Trapezius
muscle that covers the back of the neck and upper and middle region of the back; rotates and controls swinging movements of the arm.
Biceps
muscle producing the contour of the front and inner side of the upper arm; they lift the forearm, flex the elbow, and turn the palms outward.
Deltoid
large, triangular muscle covering the shoulder joint that allows the arm to extend outward and to the side of the body.
Triceps
large muscle that covers the entire back of the upper arm and extends the forearm.
Extensors
muscles that straighten the wrist, hand, and fingers to form a straight line.
Flexors
extensor muscles of the wrist, involved in bending the wrist.
Pronators
muscles that turn the radius inward so that the palm faces downward.
Supinator
muscle that rotates the radius outward and the palm upward.
Nervous System
responsible for coordinating all the many activities that are performed both inside and outside of the body.
Central Nervous or Cerebrospinal System
consists of the brain, spinal cord, spinal nerves, and cranial nerves. It controls consiousness and all mental activities, voluntary funtions of the five senses, and voluntary muscle actions.
Peripheral Nervous System
system of nerves and ganglia that connects the peripheral parts of the body to the central nervous system; has both sensory and motor nerves.
Autonomic Nervous System
the part of the nervous system that controls the involuntary muscles; regulates the action of the smooth muscles, glands, blood vessels, and heart.
Brain
largest and most complex neve in the body; it controls sensation, muscles, glandular activity, and the power to think and feel.
Spinal Cord
portion of the central nervous system that originates in the brain, extends down to the lower extremity of the trunk, and is protected by the spinal column.
Neuron or Nerve Cell
primary structual unit of the nervous system; consist of the cell body, nucleus, dendrites, and axons.
Dendrites
nerve fibers extending from the nerve cell that recieve impulses from other neurons.
Axons
send impulses away from the cell body to other neurons, glands, or muscles.
Nerves
whitish cords made up of bundles of nerve fibers held together by connective tissue, through which impulses are transmitted.
Sensory or Afferent Nerves
carry impulses or messeges from the sense organs to the brain, where sensations of touch, cold, heat, sight, hearing, taste, smell, pain, and pressure are experienced.
Motor or Efferent Nerves
carry impulses from the brain to the muscles.
Reflex
automatic nerve reaction to a stimulus that involves the movement of an impulse from a sensory receptor along the afferent nerve to the spinal cord, and a responsive impulse along an efferent neuron to a muscle, causing a reaction.
Fifth Cranial Nerve (trifacial or trigeminal nerve)
chief sensory nerve of the face, and serves as the motor nerve of the muscles that control chewing.
Ophthalmic Nerve
branch of the fifth cranial nerve that supplies the skin of the forehead, upper eyelids, and interior portion of the scalp, orbit, eyeball, and nasal passage.
Mandibular Nerve
branch of the fifth cranial nerve that supplies the muscles and skin of the lower part of the face; also, nerve that affects the muscles of the chin and lower lip.
Maxillary Nerve
Branch of the fifth cranial nerve that supplies the upper part of the face.
Auriculotemporal Nerve
affects the external ear and skin above the temple, up to the top of the skull.
Infraorbital Nerve
affects the skin of the lower eyelid, side of the nose, upper lip, and mouth.
Infratrochlear Nerve
affects the membrane and skin of the nose.
Spinal Cord
portion of the central nervous system that originates in the brain, extends down to the lower extremity of the trunk, and is protected by the spinal column.
Neuron or Nerve Cell
primary structual unit of the nervous system; consist of the cell body, nucleus, dendrites, and axons.
Dendrites
nerve fibers extending from the nerve cell that recieve impulses from other neurons.
Axons
send impulses away from the cell body to other neurons, glands, or muscles.
Nerves
whitish cords made up of bundles of nerve fibers held together by connective tissue, through which impulses are transmitted.
Sensory or Afferent Nerves
carry impulses or messeges from the sense organs to the brain, where sensations of touch, cold, heat, sight, hearing, taste, smell, pain, and pressure are experienced.
Motor or Efferent Nerves
carry impulses from the brain to the muscles.
Reflex
automatic nerve reaction to a stimulus that involves the movement of an impulse from a sensory receptor along the afferent nerve to the spinal cord, and a responsive impulse along an efferent neuron to a muscle, causing a reaction.
Fifth Cranial Nerve (trifacial or trigeminal nerve)
chief sensory nerve of the face, and serves as the motor nerve of the muscles that control chewing.
Ophthalmic Nerve
branch of the fifth cranial nerve that supplies the skin of the forehead, upper eyelids, and interior portion of the scalp, orbit, eyeball, and nasal passage.
Mandibular Nerve
branch of the fifth cranial nerve that supplies the muscles and skin of the lower part of the face; also, nerve that affects the muscles of the chin and lower lip.
Maxillary Nerve
Branch of the fifth cranial nerve that supplies the upper part of the face.
Auriculotemporal Nerve
affects the external ear and skin above the temple, up to the top of the skull.
Infraorbital Nerve
affects the skin of the lower eyelid, side of the nose, upper lip, and mouth.
Infratrochlear Nerve
affects the membrane and skin of the nose.
Mental Nerve
affects the skin of the lower lip and chin.
Nasal Nerve
affects the point and lower side of the nose.
Supraorbital Nerve
affects the skin of the forehead, scalp, eyebrow, and upper eyelid.
Supratrochlear Nerve
affects the skin between the eyes and upper side of the nose.
Zygomatic Nerve
affects the muscles of the upper part of the cheek.
Seventh Cranial Nerve
chief motor nerve of the face, emerging near the lower part of the ear and extends to the muscles of the neck.
Eleventh Cranial (accessory) Nerve
spinal branch, affects the muscles of the neck and back.
Buccal Nerve
affects the muscles of the mouth.
Cervical Nerves
affect the side of the neck and the platysma muscle.
Mandibular Nerve
affects the muschles of the chin and lower lip.
Posterior Auricular Nerve
affects the muscles behind the ear at the base of the skull.
Temporal Nerve
affects the muscles of the temple, side of the forehead, eyebrow, eyelid, and upper part of the cheek.
Zygomatic Nerve
affects the muscles of the upper part of the cheek.
Cervical Nerves
originate at the spinal cord, and their branchs supply the muscles of the scalp at the bck of the head and neck.
Cervical Cutaneous Nerve
located at the side of the neck, affects the front and sides of the neck as far down as the breastbone.
Greater Auricular Nerve
located at the side of the neck, affects the face, ears, neck, and parotid gland.
Greater Occipital Nerve
located in the back of the head, affects the scalp as far up as the top of the head.
Smaller Occipital Nerve
located at the base of the skull, affects the scalp and muscles behind the ear.
Digital Nerve
sensory-motor nerve that, with its branches, supplies the fingers.
Radial Nerve
sensory-motor nerve that, with its branches, supplies the thumb side of the arm and back of the hand.
Median Nerve
smaller sensory-motor than the ulnar and radial nerves that, with its branches, supplies the arm and hand.
Ulnar Nerve
sensory-motor nerve that, with its branches, affects the little finger side of the arm and palm of the hand.
Circulatory System
controls the steady circulation of the blood through the body by means of the heart and blood vessels.
Blood Vascular System
consists of the heart, arteries, veins, and capillaries for the distribution of blood throughout the body.
Lymph Vascular System
acts as an aid to the blood system and consists of the lymph.lymphatics, lymph nodes, and other structures.
Lymph
clear yellowish fluid that circulates in the lymphatics of the body; it carries waste and impurities away from the cells.
Heart
the body's pump; it is a muscular, cone-shaped organ that keeps the blood moving within the circulatory system.
Pericardium
double-layered membranous sac enclosing the heart.
Right & Left Atrium
upper, thin-walled chambers.
Right & Left Ventricles
lower, thick-walled chambers.
Valves
structure betwwn the chambers that allow the blood to flow in only one direction.
Pulmonary Circulation
sends the blood from the heart to the lungs to be purified.
Systemic or General Circulation
carries the blood from the heart throughout the body and back to the heart.
Arteries
thick-walled, muscular, flexible tubes that carry oxygenated blood away from the heart to the capillaries.
Capillaries
minute thin-walled blood vessels that connect the smaller arteries to the veins.
Veins
thin-walled blood vessels that are less elastic than arteries; they contain cup-like valves to prevent backflow and carry impure blood from the various capillaries back to the heart and lungs.
Blood
a nutritive fluid circulating through the circulatory system to supply oxygen and nutrients to cells and tissues, and to remove carbon dioxide and waste from them.
Red Blood Cells (red corpusles)
erythocytes; blood cells that carry oxygen from the lungs to the body cells and transport carbon dioxide from the cells back to the lungs.
Hemoglobin
a complex iron protein that gives the blood its bright red color.
White Blood Cells (white corpusles)
leukocytes; blood cells that perform the function of destroying disease-causing germs.
Platelets
thrombocytes; blood cells that contribute to the blood-clotting process.
Plasma
fluid part of the blood and lymph that carries food and secretions to the cells and carbon dioxide from the cells.
Lymph Nodes
glandlike bodies in the lymphatic vessels that filter lymph; this helps fight infection.
Common Carotid Arteries
ateries that are the main source of blood supply to the head, face, and neck; located on either side of the neck.
Internal Carotid Artery
supplies blood to the brain, eyes, eyelids, forehead, nose, and internal ear.
External Carotid Artery
supplies blood to the anterior parts of the scalp, ear, face, neck, and side of the head.
Facial Artery or External Maxillary Artery
supplies blood to the lower region of the face, mouth, and nose.
Submental Artery
supplies blood to the chin and lower lip.
Inferior Labial Artery
supplies blood to the lower lip.
Angular Artery
supplies blood to the side of the nose.
Superior Labial Artery
supplies blood to the upper lip and region of the nose.
Superficial Temporal Artery
continuation of the external carotid artery and supplies blood to the muscles of the front, side, and top of the head.
Frontal Artery
supplies blood to the forehead and upper eyelids.
Parietal Artery
supplies blood to the side and crown of the head.
Transverse Facial Artery
supplies blood to the skin and masseter.
Middle Temporal Artery
supplies blood to the temples.
Anterior Auricular Artery
supplies blood to the front part of the ear.
Occipital Artery
supplies blood to the skin and muscles of the scalp and back of the head up to the crown.
Posterior Auricular Artery
supplies the scalp, the area behind and above the ear, and the skin behind the ear.
Supraorbital Artery
supplies blood to the upper eyelid and forehead.
Infraorbital Artery
supplies blood to the muscles of the eye.
Internal Jugular Vein
vein located at the side of the neck to collect blood from the brain and parts of the face and neck.
External Jugular Vein
vein located on the side of the neck that carries blood returning to the heart from the head, face, and neck.
Ulnar Artery
with its branches, supply the little-finger side of the arm and palm of the hand.
Radial Artery
with its branches, supply the thumb side of the arm and the back of the hand.
Endocrine System
group of specialized glands that affect the growth, development, sexual activities, and health of the entire body.
Glands
specialized organs that remove certain elements from the blood to convert them into new compounds.
Exocrine Glands (duct glands)
produce substance that travels through small tube-like ducts; sweat and oil glands.
Endocrine Glands (ductless glands)
release hormonal secretions directly into the bloodstream.
Hormones
stimulate funtional activity or secretion in other parts of the body; insulin, adrenaline, and estrogen.
Digestive system (gastrointestinal system)
changes food into nutrients and waste.
Digestive Enzymes
chemicals that change certain kinds of food into a form that can be used by the body.
Excretory System
purifies the body by eliminating waste matter.
Kidneys
excrete urine.
Liver
discharges bile.
Skin
eliminates perspiration.
Large Intestine
eliminates decomposed and undigested food.
Lungs
exhale carbon dioxide.
Respiratory System
enables breathing and consists of the lungs and air passages.
Lungs
spongy tissues composed of microscopic cells in which inhaled air is exchanged for carbon dioxide during one breathing cycle.
Diaphragm
muscular wall that separates the thorax from the abdominal region and helps control breathing.
Integumentary System
made up of the skin and its accessory organs, such as the oil and sweat flands, sensory receptors, hair, and nails.
Reproductive System
body system responsible for reproducing and perpetuating the human race.