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154 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
ankyl/o
crooked or stiff
arthr/o
articul/o
joint
brachi/o
arm
cervic/o
neck
chondr/o
cartilage
cost/o
rib
crani/o
skull
dactyl/o
digit (finger or toe)
fasci/o
fascia (a band)
femor/o
femur
fibr/o
fiber
kyph/o
humped-back
lei/o
smooth
lord/o
bent
lumb/o
lower back
myel/o
bone marrow or spinal cord
my/o
myos/o
muscul/o
muscle
oste/o
bone
patell/o
knee cap
pelv/i
pel/o
hip bone of pelvic cavity
radi/o
radius
rhabd/o
rod shaped or striated (skeletal)
sarc/o
flesh
scoli/o
twisted
spondyl/o
vertebr/o
vertebra
stern/o
sternum (breastbone)
ten/o
tend/o
tendin/o
tendon (to stretch)
thorac/o
chest
ton/o
tone or tension
uln/o
ulna
appendicular skeleton
bones of shoulder, pelvis, and upper and lower extremities
axial skeleton
bones of skull, vertebral column, chest, and hyoid bone
bone
specialized connective tissue composed of osteocytes forming the skeleton
compact bone
tightly solid, strong bone tissue resistant to bending
spongy bone
mesh-like bone tissue containing marrow and fine branching canals through which blood vessels run
long bones
bones of arms and legs
short bones
bones of wrist and ankles
flat bones
bones of ribs, shoulder blades, pelvis, and skull
irregular bones
bones of vertebrae and face
sesamoid bones
round bones found near joints
epiphysis
wide ends of a long bone
diaphysis
shaft of a long bone
metaphysis
growth zone between epiphysis and diaphysis during development of a long bone
endosteum
membrane lining the medullary cavity of a bone
medullary cavity
cavity within the shaft of the long bones filled with bone marrow
bone marrow
soft connective tissue within the medullary cavity of bones
red bone marrow
functions to form red blood cells, some white blood cells, and platelets
yellow bone marrow
gradually replaces red bone marrow in adult bones
periosteum
a fibrous, vascular membrane that covers the bone
articular cartilage
a gristlelike substance on bones where they articulate
articulation
a joint
bursa
a fibrous sac between certain tendons and bones, lined with a synovial membrane that secretes synovial fluid
disk
a flat platelike structure composed of fibrocartilaginous tissue found between the vertebrae to reduce friction
nucleus pulposus
soft fibrocartilaginous, central portion of intervertebral disk
ligament
a flexible band of fibrous tissue that connects bone to bone
synovial membrane
membrane lining the capsule of a joint
synovial fluid
joint-lubricating fluid secreted by the synovial membrane
muscle
tissue composed of fibers that can contract, causing movement of and organ or part of the body
striated (skeletal) muscle
voluntary muscle attached to the skeleton
smooth muscle
involuntary muscle found in internal organs
origin of a muscle
muscle end attached to the bone that does not move when the muscle contracts
insertion of a muscle
muscle end attached to the bone that moves when the muscle contracts
tendon
a band of fibrous tissue that connects muscle to bone
fascia
a band or sheet of fibrous connective tissue that covers, supports, and separates muscle
body planes
reference planes for indicating the location or direction of body parts
coronal (frontal) plane
vertical division of the body in front (anterior) and back (posterior) portions
sagittal plane
vertical division of the body into right and left portions
transverse plane
horizontal division of the body into upper and lower positions
anterior
front of the body
posterior
back of the body
anterior posterior (AP)
from front to back
posterior anterior (PA)
from back to front
superior (cephalic)
situated above another structure, toward the head
inferior (caudal)
situated below another structure
proximal
toward the beginning or origin of a structure
distal
away from the beginning or origin of a structure
medial
toward the middle (midline)
lateral
toward the side
erect
normal standing position
decubitus
lying down
prone
lying face down and flat
recumbent
lying down
supine
horizontal recumbant, lying flat on the back
flexion
bending at the joint so that the angle between the bones is decreased
extension
straightening at the joint so that the angle between the bones is increased
abduction
movement away from the body
adduction
movement toward the body
rotation
circular movement
eversion
turning outward
inversion
turning inward
supination
turning upward or forward of the palmar surface
pronation
turning downward or backward of the palmar surface or plantar surface
dorsiflexion
bending of the foot or the toes upward
plantar flexion
bending of the sole of the foot by curling the toes toward the ground
goniometer
instrument used to measure joint angles
anklyosis
stiff joint condition
arthritis
inflammation of the joints
osteoarthritis
most common form of arthritis, characterized by the erosion of articular cartilage
rheumatoid arthritis
most crippling form of arthritis, characterized by chronic, systemic inflammation of most often affecting joints and synovial membranes
gouty arthritis
acute attacks of arthritis usually in a single joint
bony necrosis
bone tissue that has died from loss of blood supply
bunion
swelling of the joint at the base of the great toe caused by inflammation of the bursa
bursitis
inflammation of a bursa
chondromalacia
softening of cartilage
epiphysitis
inflammation of epiphyseal regions of the long bone
fracture
broken or cracked bone
closed fracture
broken bone with no open wound
open fracture
compound fracture; broken bone with an open wound
simple fracture
a nondisplaced fracture with one fracture line that does not require extensive treatment to repair
complex fracture
a displaced fracture that requires manipulation or surgery to repair
comminuted fracture
broken into many little pieces
greenstick fracture
bending and incomplete break of a bone-mostly seen in children
herniated disk
protrusion of a degenerated or fragmented intervertebral disk so that the nucleus pulposus protrudes
myeloma
bone marrow tumor
myositis
inflammation of muscle
myoma
muscle tumor
leiomyoma
smooth muscle tumor
leiomyosarcoma
malignant smooth muscle tumor
rhabdomyoma
skeletal muscle tumor
rhabdomyosarcoma
malignant skeletal muscle tumor
muscular dystrophy
genetically transmitted disease charaterized by progressive atrophy of skeletal muscles
osteoma
bone tumor
osteosarcoma
malignant bone tumor
osteomalacia
softening of the bnoe
rickets
osteomalacia in children
osteomylitis
bone or bone marrow inflammation
osteoporosis
condition of decreased bone density and increased porosity
kyphosis
abnormal posterior curvature of the thoracic spine
lordosis
abnormal anterior curvature of the lumbar spine
scoliosis
abnormal lateral curvature
spondylolisthesis
forward slipping of a lumbar vertebra
spondylosis
stiff, immobile condition of vertebrae
sprain
injury to a ligament caused by joint trauma
subluxation
a partial dislocation
tendinitis
inflammation of a tendon
arthrogram
a radiograph of a joint taken after injection of a contrast medium
sonography
use of high frequency sound waves to make an image of tissues or structures
amputation
partial or complete removal of a limb
arthrocentesis
puncture of a joint
arthrodesis
binding or fusing of joint surfaces
arthroplasty
repair or reconstruction of a joint
arthroscopy
using an arthroscope to examine, diagnose, and repair a joint from within
bone grafting
transplantation of a piece of bone from one site to another to repair a skeletal defect
bursectomy
excision of a bursa
myoplasty
repair of a muscle
osteotomy
an incision into bone
osteoplasty
repair of bone
spondylosyndesis
spinal fusion
tenotomy
division by incision of a tendon to repair a deformity caused by shortening of a muscle
orthosis
use of an orthopedic appliance to maintain a bone's position or to provide limb support
prosthesis
an artificial replacement for a missing body part
analgesic
a drug that relieves pain
narcotic
a potent analgesic with addictive properties
antipyretic
a drug that relieves fever