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315 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
ankyl/o
crooked or stiff
arthr/o
joint
articul/o
joint
brachi
arm
cervic/o
neck
chondr/o
cartilage
crani/o
skull
cost/o
rib
fasci/o
fascia (a band)
femor/o
femur
kyph/o
humped-back
lord/o
bent
lei/o
smooth
lumb/o
loin (lower back)
myel/o
bone marrow or spinal cord
my/o
muscle
oste/o
bone
patell/o
knee cap
pelv/i
hip bone or pelvic cavity
pel/o
hip bone or pelvic cavity
radi/o
radius
rhabd/o
rod shaped or striated (skeletal)
sarc/o
flesh
scoli/o
twisted
spondyl/o
vertebra
stern/o
sternum (breastbone)
ten/o
tendon (to stretch)
thorac/o
chest
ton/o
tone or tension
uln/o
ulna
appendicular skeleton
bones of shoulder, pelvis, and upper and lower extremities
axial skeleton
bones of skull, vertebral column, chest, and yoid bone
bone
specialized connective tissue composed of osteocytes forming the skeleton
compact bone
tightly solid, strong bone tissue resistant to bending
spongy (cancellous) bone
mesh-like bone tissue containing marrow and fine branching canals through which blood vessels run
long bones
bones of arms and legs
short bones
bones of wrist and ankles
flat bones
bones of ribs, shoulder blades, pelvis, and skull
irregular bones
bones of vertebrae and face
sesamoid bones
round bones near joints (i.e. patella)
epiphysis
wide ends of a long bone
diaphysis
shaft of a long bone
metaphysis
growth zone btwn epiphysis and diaphysis during development of a long bone
endosteum
membrane lining medullary cavity of a bone
bone marrow
soft connective tissue within the medullary cavity of bones
red bone marrow
functions to form red blood cells, some white blood cells, and platelets; found in cavities of most bones in infants and in flat bones in adults
yellow bone marrow
gradually replaces red bone marrow in adult bones; functions as storage for fat tissue, inactive in formation of blood cells
periosteum
a fibrous, vascular membrane that covers the bone
articular cartilage
a gristlelike substance on bones where they articulate
articulation
a joint; the point where two bones come together
bursa
a fibrous sac btwn certain tendons and bones, lined with a synovial membrane that secretes synovial fluid
disk
a flat, platelike substance composed of fibrocartilaginous tissue found btwn vertebra to reduce friction
mucleus puplosus
soft, fibrocartilaginous, central portion of intervertebral disc
ligament
flexible band of fibrous tissue that connects bone to bone
synovial membrane
membrane lining capsule of a joint
synovial fluid
joint-lubricating fluid secreted by synovial membrane
muscle
tissue composed of fibers that can contract, causing movement of organ or part of body
striated (skeletal) muscle
voluntary muscle attached to skeleton
smooth
involuntary muscle found in internal organs
origin of a muscle
muscle end attached to the bone that does not move when the muscle contracts
insertion of a muscle
muscle end attached to the bone that moves when the muscle contracts
tendon
band of fibrous tissue that connects muscle to bone
fascia
band or sheet of fibrous connective tissue that covers, supports, and separates muscle
anatomical position
erect, facing forward, feet ointed forward slightly apart, arms at sides, palms facing forwards
body planes
reference planes indication location or direction of body parts
coronal plane
frontal; vertical division of body into front (anterior) & back (posterior) portions
sagittal plane
vertical division of body into left and right
transverse plane
horizontal division of body into upper and lower portions
anterior
(ventral) front of the body
posterior
(dorsal) back of the body
superior
(cephalic) situated above another structure, toward the head
inferior
(caudal) situated below another structure, away from the head
proximal
toward beginning or origin of a structure
distal
away from beg. or origin of a structure
medial
toward the middle
insertion of a muscle
muscle end attached to the bone that moves when the muscle contracts
tendon
band of fibrous tissue that connects muscle to bone
fascia
band or sheet of fibrous connective tissue that covers, supports, and separates muscle
anatomical position
erect, facing forward, feet ointed forward slightly apart, arms at sides, palms facing forwards
body planes
reference planes indication location or direction of body parts
coronal plane
frontal; vertical division of body into front (anterior) & back (posterior) portions
sagittal plane
vertical division of body into left and right
transverse plane
horizontal division of body into upper and lower portions
anterior
(ventral) front of the body
posterior
(dorsal) back of the body
superior
(cephalic) situated above another structure, toward the head
inferior
(caudal) situated below another structure, away from the head
proximal
toward beginning or origin of a structure
distal
away from beg. or origin of a structure
medial
toward the middle
lateral
toward the side
axis
line that runs through the center of the body or body part
erect
normal standing position
decubitus
lying down
prone
lying face down and flat
recumbent
lying down
supine
horizontal recumbent; lying flat on the back ("on the spine")
flexion
bending joint so angle btwn bones decrease
extension
straightening at the joint so angle btwn bones increase
eversion
turning outward, i.e. a foot
supination
turning upward or forward of palmar surface or plantar surface
pronation
turning downward or backward of palmar surface or plantar surface
dorsiflexion
bending of foot or toes upward
plantar flextion
bending of sole of foot by curling toes toward ground
range of motion
ROM, total motion possible in a joint, described by terms related to body motion
goniometer
instrument used to measure joint angles
crepitation
crepitus; grating sound sometimes made by movement of a joint or broken bones
exostosis
a projection arising from a bone that develops from cartilage
flaccid
flabby, relaxed, or having defective or absent muscle tone
hypertrophy
increase in size of a muscle
hypotonia
reduce muscle tension
rigidity
rigor; stiffness, stiff muscle
spasm
drawing in; involuntary contraction of a muscle
spastic
uncontrolled contractions of skeletal muscles causing stiff and awkward movements
tetany
tension; prolonged, continuous muscle contraction
tremor
shaking, rhythmic muscular movement
ankylosis
stiff joint condition
osteoarthritis
most common form of arthritis, esp. affecting weight-bearing joints characterized by erosion of articular cartilage
rheumatoid arthritis
most crippling form of arthritis, characterized by chronic, systemic inflammation most often affecting joingts & synovial membranes causing ankylosis & deformity
gouty arthritis
acute attacks of arthritis usu. in a single joint caused by hyperuricemia, exc. level of uric acid in blood
bony necrosis
bone tissue that has died from loss of blood supply
bunion
swelling of the joint at base of great toe caused by inflammation of the bursa
chondromalacia
softening of cartilage
epiphysitis
inflammation of epiphyseal regions of the long bone
fracture
broken or cracked bone
closed fracture
broken bone with no open wound
open fracture
compound fracture; broken bone with an oopen wound
simple fracture
a nondisplaced fracture w/ one fracture line that does not require extensive treatment to repair
comminuted fracture
broken in many pieces
fracture line
the line of the break in a broken bone
greenstick fracture
bending and incomplete break of a bone - most often seen in children
herniated disk
protrusion of a degenerated or fragmented intervertebral disd so that the nucleu puposus protrudes, causing compression on the nerve root
myeloma
bone marrow tumor
myositis
inflammation of muscle
leiomyoma
smooth muscle tumor
rhabdomyosarcoma
malignant skeletal muscle tumor
muscular dystrophy
a category of genetically transmitted diseases characterized by progressive atrophy of skeletal muscles
osteomalacia
disease marked by softening of the bone caused by calcium and vitamin D deficiency
rickets
osteomalacia in children (causes bone deformity)
osteomyelitis
infection of bone and bone marrow causing inflammation
osteoporosis
condition of decreased bone density and increased porosity, causing bones to become brittle and to more easily fracture
kyphosis
abnormal posterior curvature of the thoracic spine (humped-back condition)
lordosis
abnormal anterior curvature of the lumbar spine (sway-back)
scoliosis
abnormal lateral curvature (S-shaped curve)
spondylolisthesis
forward slipping of a lumbar vertebra
spondylosis
stiff, immobile condition of vertebrae
sprain
injury to a ligament caused by joint trauma but w/o joint dislocation or fracture
subluxation
a partial dislocation
tendinitis
inflammation of a tendon
electromyogram
a neurodiagnostic graphic record of the electrical activity of muscle at rest and during contraction --> used to diagnose neuromusculoskeletal disorders
magnetic resonance imaging
nonionizing imaging technique using magnetic fields and radio frequency waves to visualize anatomic structures
nuclear medicine imaging
a diagnostic imaging technique using injected or ingested radioactive isotopes and a gamma-camera for determining size, shape, locatio, function of various body parts
bone scan
a nuclear scan of bone tissue to detect a tumor, malignancy
radiography
an imaging modality using x-rays to diagnose condition or impairment somewhere in body
arthrogram
a radiograph of a joint taken after injection of a contrast medium
computed tomography
a radiologic procedure using a machine called a scanner to take a series of corss-sectional x-ray images in a full circle rotation --> calculates rate of absorption & density
sonography
use of high frequency sound waves to make an image of tissues or structures
arthrocentesis
punction for aspiration of a joint
arthrodesis
binding or fusing of joint surfaces
arthroplasty
repair or reconstruction of a joint
arthroscopy
proceudre using an arthroscope to examine, diagnose, and repair a joint from within
bone grafting
transplantation of a piece of bone from one site to another to repair skeletal defect
open reduction, internal fixation
internal surgical repair of a fracture by bringing bones back into alignment & fixing them into place w/ devices such as plates, screws, and pins
osteotomy
an incision into bone
spondylosyndesis
spinal fusion
tenotomy
division by incision of a tendon to repair a deformity caused by shortening of a muscle
closed reduction, external fixation of a facture
external manipulation of a fracture to regain alignment along w/ application of an external device to protect and hold bone in place while healing
casting
use of a stiff, solid dressing to immobolize
splinting
use of rigid device to immobolize
traction
application of a pulling force to a fracture bone or dislocated joint to maintain proper position for healing
closed reduction percutaneous fixation of a fracture
external manipulation of a fracture to regain alignment, followed by insertion of one or more pins through the skin to maintain poisition
orthosis
use of an orthopedic appliance to maintain a bone's position or to provide limb support
prostehsis
artificial replacement for a missing body part, or a device used to improve a body function
analgesic
a drug that relieves pain
narcotic
a potent analgesic w/ addictive properties
anti-inflammatory
a drug that reduces inflammation
antipyretic
a drug that relieves fever
nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug
group of drugs w/ analgesic, anti-inflammatory, & antipyretic properties commonly used to treat arthritis
aort/o
aorta
arteri/o
artery
ather/o
fatty (lipid) paste
atri/o
atrium
coron/o
circle or crown
my/o
muscle
pector/o
chest
steth/o
chest
sphygm/o
pulse
thromb/o
clot
ven/o
vein
phleb/o
vein
varic/o
swollen, twisted vein
ventricul/o
ventricle (belly or pouch)
atrium
upper right or left chamber of heart
endocardium
membrane lining cavities of the heart
epicardium
membrane forming outer layer of heart
interatrial septum
partition btwn right and left atrium
interventricular septum
partition btwn right and left ventricle
myocardium
heart muscle
pericardium
protective sac enclosing heart composed of 2 layers w/ fluid inbtwn
mitral valve
bicuspid; heart valve btwn left atrium & left ventricle
aortic valve
heart valve btwn left ventricle & aorta
pulmonary semilunar valve
heart valve opening from right ventricle to pulmonary artery
tricuspid valve
valve btwn right atrium & right ventricle
valves of the veins
valves located at intervals within lining of veins, esp. in legs which constrict w/ muscle action to move blood returning to heart
arteries
vessels that carry blood from heart to arterioles
aorta
large artery that is the main trunk of the arterial system branching from left ventricle
arterioles
small vessels that receive blood from arterioles
capillaries
tiny vessels that join arterioles & venules
venules
small vessels that gather blood from capillaries into veins
veins
vessels that carry blood to heart from venules
systemic circulation
circulation of blood throughout body through arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins to deliver oxygen & nutrients to body tissues
coronary circulation
circulation of blood through coronary blood vessels to deliver oxygen & nutrients to heart muscle tissue
pulmonary circulation
circulation of blood from pulmonary artery through vessel in lungs & back to heart via pulmonary vein, providing exchange of gases
diastole
to expand; period in cardiac cycle when blood enters relaxed ventricles from atria
systole
to contract; period in cardiac cycle when heart is in contraction & blood ejected through aorta & pulmonary artery
normotension
normal blood pressure
hypotension
low blood pressure
arteriosclerosis
thickening, loss of elasticity, & calcification of arterial walls
atherosclerosis
buildup of fatty substances that harden within walls of arteris
atheromatous plaque
a swollen area within lining of an artery caused by buildup of fat
thrombus
a stationary blood clot
embolus
a clot carried in bloodstream that obstructs when it loges
stenosis
condition of narrowing of a part
constriction
compression of a part
occlusion
plugging; obstruction or a closing off
ischemia
to hold back blood; decreased blood flow to tissue caused by constriction or occlusion of a blood vessel
perfusion deficit
a lack of blood flow through a blood vessel caused by narrowing, occlusion, etc.
infarct
to stuff; a localized area of necrosis caused by ischemia resulting from occlusion of a blood vessel
angina pectoris
chest pain caused by temporary loss of oxygenated blood to heart muscle often caused by narrowing of coronary arteries
aneurysm
a widening; bulging of the wall of heart, aorta, or artery caused by congenital defect or acquired weakness
saccular aneurysm
a saclike bulge on one side
fusiform aneurysm
a spindle-shaped bulge
dissecting aneurysm
a split or tear of the vessel wall
claudication
to limp; pain in a limb while walker that subsides after rest; caused by inadequate blood supply
heart murmur
an abnormal sound from heart produced by defects in chambers or valves
palpitation
subjective experience of pounding, skipping, or racing heartbreak
vegetation
to grow; an abnormal growth of tissue around a valve, generally a result of infection
sinoatrial node
pacemaker; highly specialized neurologic tissue impeded in wall of right atrium responsible for initiating electrical conduction of heartbeat, causing atria to contract & firing conduction of impulses to AV node
atrioventricular node
neurologic tissue in the center of the heart that receives & amplifies the conduction of impulses from SA node to bundle of His
bundle of His
neurologic fibers extending from AV node to right & left bundle branches that fire the impulse from AV node to Purkinje fibers
Purkinje fibers
fibers in ventricles that transmit impulses to right & left ventricles, causing them to contract
polarization
resting; resting state of a myocardial cell
depolarization
change of a myocardial cell from a polarized state to a state of contraction
repolarization
recharging of the myocardial cell from a contracted state back to a resting state
normal sinus rhythm
regular rhythm of heart cycle stimulated by SA node
arrhythmia
any of several kinds of irregularity or loss of rhythm of the heartbeat
bradycardia
slow heart rate
fibrillation
chaotic, irregular contractions of the heart
flutter
extermely rapid but regular contractions of the heart
premature ventricular contraction
a ventricular contraction preceding normal impulse initiated by SA node (PVC)
arteriosclerotic heart disease
a degenerative condition of arteries characterized by thickening of inner lining, loss of elasticity, & susceptibility to rupture
bacterial endocarditis
a bacterial inflammation that affects the endoardium or heart valves
cardiac tamponade
compression of heart produced by accumulation of fluid in pericardial sac as can result from pericarditis or trauma, causing rupture of a blood vessel within heart
cardiomyopathy
a general term for disease of heart muscle
congenital anomaly of heart
malformation of the heart present at birth
atrial septal defect
an opening in septum separating atria
coarctation of the aorta
narrowing of the descending portion of the aorta resulting in a limited flow of blood to the lower part of the body
patent ductus arteriosus
an abnormal opening btwn pulmonary artery & aorta caused by failure of fetal ductus arteriosus to close after birth
congestive heart failure
failure of left ventricle to pump an adequate amount of blood to meet demands of body, resulting in "bottleneck" of congestion in lungs that may extend to veings, causing edema in lower portions of body
cor pulmonale
enlargement of right ventricle resulting from chronic disease within lungs that causes congestion within pulmonary circulation & resistance of blood flow to lungs
coronary artery disease
a condition affecting arteries of heart that reduces flow of blood & delivery of oxygen & nutrients to myocardium, most often caused by atherosclerosis
hypertension
persistently high blood pressure
essential hypertension
high blood pressure attributed to no single cause
secondary hypertension
high blood pressure caused by effects of another disease
mitral valve prolapse
protrusion of one or both cusps of mitral valve back into left atrium during ventricular contraction, resulting in incomplete closure & backflow of blood
myocardial infarction
heart attack; death of myocardial tissue owing to loss of blood flow of a coronary artery, usu. caused by atherosclerosis
myocarditis
inflammation of myocardium most often caused by viral or bacterial infection
phlebitis
inflammation of a vein
thrombophlebitis
inflammation of a vein associated w/ a clot formation
varicose veins
abnormally swollen twisted veins w/ defective valves
deep vein thrombosis
formation of a clot in a deep vein of the body
auscultation
a physical examination method of listening to sounds within body w/ a stethoscope
gallop
an abnormal heart sound that mimics gait of a horse; related to abnormal ventricular contraction
electrocardiogram
an electrical picture of heart
stress electrocardiogram
ECG of heart recorded during induction of controlled physical exercise
Holter ambulatory monitor
a portable electrocardiograph worn by patient that monitors electrical activity of heart over 24 hrs
magnetic resonance angiography
magnetic resonance imaging of heart & blood vessels for evaluation of pathology
myocardial radionuclide perfusion scan
a scan of heart made after an intravenous injection of an isotope that is absorbed by myocardial cells in proportion to blood flow throughout heart
radiology
x-ray imaging
angiography
process of x-ray imaging of a blood vessel after injection of contrast medium
cardiac catheterization
introduction of a flexible, narrow tube through a vein or artery into heart to withdraw samples of blood; to measure pressures within heart chambers or vessels
left heart catheterization
x-ray of left ventricular cavity & coronary arteries
right heart catherterization
measurement of oxygen saturation & pressure readings of right side of heart
stroke volume
measurement of amount of blood ejected from a ventricle in one contraction
cardiac output
measurement of amount of blood ejected from either ventricle of heart per min
ejection fraction
measurement of volume % of left ventricular contents ejected w/ each contraction
echocardiography
recording of sound waves through heart to evaluate structure and motion
transesophageal echocardiogram
echocardiographic image of heart after placement of an ultrasoic transducer at end of an endoscope inside esophagus
Doppler sonography
ultrasound technique used to evaluate blood flow to determine presence of a deep vein thrombosis or carotid insufficiency
coronary artery bypass graft
grafting of a portion of a blood vessel retrieved from another part of the body to bypass an occluded coronary artery restoring circulation to myocardial tissue
anastomosis
opening; joining of 2 blood vessels to allow flow from one to another
valve replacement
replacement of diseased valve w/ artificial one
valvuloplasty
surgical repair of a heart valve
transmyocardial revascularization
a laser technique used to open tiny channels in the heart muscle to restore blood flow
atherectomy
excision of atheromatous plaque from within an artery utilizing a device housed in a flexible catheter that selectively cuts away or pulverizes tissue buildup
embolectomy
incision into an artery for removal of an embolus
percutaneous transluminal coronary agnioplasty
a method of treating the narrowing of a coronary artery by inserting a specialized catheter w/ balloon attachment, inflating to dilate & open narrowed portion of vessel & restore blood flow to myocardium
intravascular stent
implantation of a device used to reinforce the wall of a vessel & assure its patency (openness) or to reinforce patency after angioplasty
defibrillation
termination of ventricular fibrillation by delivering an electrical stiumlus to heart
defibrillator
device that delivers electrical stimulus in defibrillation
cardioversion
termination of tachycardia either by pharmaceutical means or by delivery of electrical energy
implantable cardioverter defibrillator
implanted, battery-operated device w/ rate sensing leads; the device monitors cardiac impulses & initiates an electrical stimulus as needed to stop ventricular fibrillation or tachycardia
pacemaker
a device used to treat slow heart rates by electrically stimulating heart to contract
angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor
a drug that suppresses the conversion of angiotensin in blood by angiotensin-converting enzyme; used in treatment of hypertension
antianginal
a drug that dilates coronary arteries, restoring oxygen to tissues to relieve pain of angina pectoris
antiarrhythmic
a drug that counteracts cardiac arrhythmia
anticoagulant
a drug that prevents clotting of blood
beta-adrenergic blocking agents
agents hat inhibit responses to sympathetic adrenergic nerve activity, causing a slowing of electrical conduction & heart rate & a lowering of pressure within walls of vessels
calcium channel blockers
agents that inhibit entry of calcium ions in heart muscle cells, causing a slowing of heart rate, lessening demand for oxygen & nutrients, & relaxing of smooth muscle cells of blood vessels to cause dilation
cadriotonic
a drug that increases force of myocardial contractions in heart
diuretic
a drug that increases the secretion of urine, commonly prescribed in treating hypertension
hypolipidemic
a drug that reduce serum fat & cholesterol
thrombolytic agents
drugs used to dissolve thrombi
vasoconstrictor
a drug that causes a narrowing of blood vessels, decreasing blood flow
vasodilator
a drug that causes dilation of the blood vessels, increasing blood flow