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39 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Developmental psychology
a branch of psychology that studies physical,
cognitive, and social changes throughout the human lifespan.
Examines how people are continually developing, from infancy through old age.
How much do genetic inheritance (nature) and experience (nurture) influence our development?
Is development a gradual, continuous process like riding an escalator, or does it proceed through a sequence of separate stages, like climbing rungs on a ladder?
Do our early personality traits persist through life, or do we become different persons as we age?
the fertilized egg, it enters a 2-week period of rapid cell division and develops into an embryo.
the developing human organism from about 2 weeks after fertilization through the second month.
the developing human organism from 9 weeks after conception to birth.
harmful agents, such as chemicals and viruses, that can reach the
embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm.
Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)
physical and cognitive abnormalities in children
caused by a pregnant women’s heavy drinking. In severe cases, symptoms
include noticeable facial misproportions. Marked by misproportioned head
and mental abnormalities. FAS is the leading cause of mental retardation.
Rooting reflex
a baby’s tendency, when touched on the cheek, to open the mouth
and search for the nipple.
decreasing responsiveness with repeated stimulation. As infants
gain familiarity with repeated exposure to a visual stimulus, their interest
wanes and they look away sooner. A novel stimulus gets attention when
first presented. But the more it is presented, the weaker the response becomes, seeming boredom with familiar stimuli.
biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior, relatively uninfluenced by experience.
Sets the course of development, experience adjusts it.
a concept or framework that organizes and interprets information. Pliable mental molds into which we pour our experience.
interpreting one’s new experience in terms of one’s existing schemas(understandings).
adjust / adapting one’s current understandings (schemas) to incorporate new information.
refers to all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, and
Remembering and communicating.
Sensorimotor stage
in Piaget’s theory, the stage (from birth to about 2 yrs old) during which the infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory impressions and motor activities/interactions with objects – through looking,
hearing, touching, mouthing, and grasping.
Object permanence
the awareness that things continue to exist even when not Perceived.
Preoperational stage
– in Piaget’s theory, the stage (from 2 to 6 or 7) during which a child learns to use language but does not yet comprehend the mental operations of concrete logic. Too young to perform mental operations.
the principle (which Piaget believed to be a part of concrete operational reasoning) that properties or quantity (such as mass, volume,and number) remain the same despite changes in shape.
in Piaget’s theory, the inability of the preoperational child to
take another’s point of view.
Cannot perceive things from another’s point of view.
Theory of mind
people’s ideas about their own and others’ mental states – about
their feelings, perceptions, and thoughts and the behavior these might predict.
Rather than think of people as breathing wind-up dolls, they come to realize that
people have minds.
a disorder characterized by deficient communication and social interaction,
is marked by an impaired theory of mind.
Concrete operational stage
in Piaget’s theory, the stage of cognitive development
(from 6 to 11) during which children fain the mental operations that enable
them to think logically about concrete events.Given concrete materials, they begin to grasp that change in shape does not mean
change in quantity.
Formal operational stage
in Piaget’s theory, the stage of cognitive development (normally beginning about age 12) during which people begin to think logically about abstract concepts. Systematic reasoning, capable of solving hypothetical propositions and
deducing consequences.
Stranger anxiety
the fear of strangers that infants commonly display.
an emotional tie with another person, shown in young children by seeking closeness to the caregiver and showing distress on separation.
Infant-parent bond, survival impulse that keeps infants close to their caregivers.
Critical period
an optimal period shortly after birth when an organism’s exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces proper development. When ceratin events must take place to facilitate proper development.
the process by which certain animals form attachments during a critical period very early in life. (attachment process)
Secure attachment
in their mother’s presence they play comfortably, happily exploring their new environment. When she leaves, they are distressed; when
she returns, they seek contact with her.
Insecure attachment
they are less likely to explore their surroundings, they may cling to their mother. When she leaves, they either cry loudly and remain upset or
seem indifferent to their mother’s going and returning.
Basic Trust
according to Erik Erikson, a sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy; said to be formed during infancy by appropriate experiences
with responsive caregivers.
Said that securely attached children approach life with a sense of basic trust – a sense that the world is predictable and reliable.
a sense of one’s identity and person worth. Develops by the end of childhood about 12 yrs.
Parenting Styles: Authoritarian
parents impose rules and expect obedience. “Don’t interrupt.” “Do Keep your room clean.” “Don’t stay out late or you’ll be grounded.”
“Why? Because I said so.”
Parenting Styles:Permissive
parents submit to their children’s desires, make few demands, and use little punishment.
Parenting Styles:Authoritative
parents are both demanding and responsive. They exert control not only by setting rules and enforcing them but also by explaining the reasons and, especially with older children, encouraging open discussion and allowing exceptions when making the rules.
the transition period from childhood to adulthood, extending from puberty to independence.
the period of sexual maturation, during which a person becomes capable of reproducing.
Primary sex characteristics
the body structures (ovaries, testes, and external
genitalia) that makes sexual reproduction possible. Develop dramatically.