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22 Cards in this Set

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Wavelength
Distance between identical adjacent points on a wave; lambda.
Electromagnetic radiation
All visible and invisible wavelengths; electromagnetic spectrum.
Energy of electromagnetic radiation
E = 6.626e-34 J(s) X 3e8 (m/s) / lambda
Energy of radiation
Energy of radiation increases as wavelength decreases.
Electron's energy
The closer the electron to nucleus, the lower its energy; more stable atom.
Bohr Theoryof Atomic Structure
Electrons can jump from one energy level to another.
Shell
Maximum Electron Capacity = 2n^2
Valence Shell
Outermost occupied shell.
Valence Shell; Representative Elements
Group Number = Number of valence shell electrons
Ground State
Arrangement of electrons with lowest total energy.
Excited State
1 or more electrons are located in high energy shells with room in lower energy shells.
Relaxation
When atom returns from excited to ground state, energy is released.
Subshell
n = number of subshells; n = 1 has 1 subshell.
s Subshell
2
p Subshell
6
d Subshell
10
f Subshell
14
Octet Rule
Elements react to form compounds to put 8 electrons in valence shell; valence shell configuration same as noble gas; most stable.
Metals
Tend to lose electrons.
Nonmetals
Tend to gain electrons.
Decreasing Atom Size
Atom size decreases as number of electrons increase, which increases the number of protons - a positive charge that attracts all electrons more tightly.
When electrons are farther from nucleus...
As n increases, electron gets farther from nucleus; increasing electron's energy.