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8 Cards in this Set

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Describe the Persian Wars.
City-states on Asia Minor revolted against the Persians. They were assisted by the Athenians, and defeated. King Darius, of Persia, wanted revenged and launched an attack at Marathon. 25,000 Persians were defeated by Athens. Hence, they built a strong navy to defend against future attacks. Xerxes, son of Darius, attacked at Thermopylae and defeated the Spartans. However, they were defeated by athens at Salamis. Greeks defeated the remaining Persians at Plateau. Athens then became the leader of the Delian league and collected tribute. They also commanded the leagues fleet, and dectated policy. Greece experienced a golden age, where Pericles came to power. He rebuilt the damaged city and constructed the Parthenon. He also developed a direct democracy, where each citizen had the right to vote. However, women had no political rights.
Describe the Peloponnesian War.
Athens was resented by other city-states. These city-states formed the Peloponnesian league. Spartaled the alliance. From 431 to 404 B.C., Sparta and Athens faught for control of the Peloponnesian Peninsula. Soarta recieved help from Persia and defeated Athens. Democratic governments were ended in Athens and other city-states. Sparts apared Athens out of respect, and became the leading power. In 371, Thebes defeated Sparta with the help of the Persians. More wars broke out, and the king of Macedonia, Philip II, conquered the warring states. SParta remained independant, and Greece and Madonia became one kingdom.
What is a democracy?
a government bt the citizens. It first developed in Athens.
Describe Athenian democracy.
In 508 B.C., Cleisthenes moved Athens further along the road to democratic government. He made the Athenian Assembly the lawmaking body. All citizens took part in the Assembly. He also granted citizenshop to some immigrants and former slaves. He set up a council of 500 citizens over the age of 30, to propose laws and administer laws that the Assembly approved. He introduced the idea of ostracism. Ostracism was the temporary exile of a citizen from the city.
Describle Athenian women's Rights.
Women in Athens had no political or legal rights. They could not attend the Assembly, hold office, own property, or conducy and legal business. A woman's nearest male relative acted as her legal guardian. Athenian women lived in seclusion, attending only occasional religious festivals. When leaving the house, they were always atttended by slaves. Women managed their homes and slaves and raised children.
Who was Alexander the Great?
was 20 years old when he came into power, after his father. He had served as an ambassitor to Athens. He commanded a cavalry force at the battle of Chaeronea. Through his teacher, Aristotle, Alexander had come to resipect Greek culture and learning. By 344 B.C>, he felt strong enough in Macedonia and Greece to take on the Persian Empire. He assembled an army and quickly defeated the Persian Army and liberated the Greek CIties of Asian Minor. He then founded the city of Alexandria, in Egypt. He died at 32, of a fever. Between 334 and 323, he conquered the largest empire the world had ever seen, and had spread Greek civilization.
Describe Hellenistic Civilization.
After Alexander died, a rich new culture called Hellenistic Civilization emergered in Greece, and other lands he had conquered. It was a blend of eastern and western influences, including Persian, Egyption, Indian, and Greek. Alezandria was the center of Hellenistic civilization.During this period of time, great progress was made in the sciences. Greek physicians described the human nervous system. They learned how to perform surgery using anesthetics. THey developed new scientific theories. The study of geometry was also advanced. Archimedes discovered the principle of the lever.He also invented the sdouble pulley and a catapult.
Describle the Delian League.
in 477 B.C., more than 160 delegates from Greek cities met on the island of Delos. They formed a defensice alliance to guard against possible future attacks by Persia. This alliance was dominated by Athens. It collected the tribute, commancded the league's fleet, and dictated policy.