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47 Cards in this Set

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With asexual reproduction the offspring are genetically identical to the parent animal
Describe Budding
adult animal is able to produce minature replicas of itself and they break off when they reach full size
Describe Fission
organism splits into two or more pieces and regenerate the missing piece
Describe parthenogenesis
animals have seperate sexes. Females have eggs that never get fertilized, something in environment starts division of cells- eggs start developing without being fertilized
describe cloning
take on egg cell (haploid) take out nucleus and replace a somatic (body) cell nucleus with your entire genetic info, cell divides and is put in the seregate mother
With sexual reproduction males and females produce haploid gametes through meiosis, and two parents contribute haploid gametes to form a new individual, this occurs with fertilization
Advantages of external and internal fertilization
external-no mating needed (just timing)
internal-gametes are protected and fewer are needed
disadvantages of external and internal fertilization
external- requires large # of gametes, predation is a problem
Which is more common for terrestrial animals? why?
Internal- b/c dry out on land and sperm need to swim
Is cloning an example of sexual or asexual reproduction?
Function of the testes
produce sperm and testosterone
Function of the epididymus
store sperm until they mature and become mobile
Function of the prostate gland
secrete fluid into semen
Function of seminiferous tubules
produce sperm cells
(in testes)
Function of vas deferens
passageway from epididymus to the urethra
function of seminal vesicles
secrete fluid into semen
function of interstitial cells
produce testosterone
(in testes)
Role of GNRH in male reproductive system
stimulates pituitary to release FSH and LH
Role of FSH in male reproductive system
stimulate sertoli cells to promote spermatogenesis
Role of LH in male reproductive system
stimulate interstitial cells to promote the production of testosterone
Role of testosterone in male reproductive system
needed to stimulate the production of sperm
What are the three glands which contribute to the production of sperm?
prostate gland
seminal vesicles
bulbo-urethral gland
What are the 3 functions of semen?
1) provide liquid medium for sperm to swim
2) provide glucose (ATP)
3) acid environment of uterus in neutralized
Why do males need to produce so many viable sperm in order to be considered 'fertile'
the egg has a protective covering and each sperm has acrosome which is an enzyme that errodes away that covering to fertilize it
Function of the ovaries
produces eggs, estrogen and progesterone
Function of uterus
muscular chamber where fetus develops
Function of vagina
receptacle for semen, birth canal
Function of follicles
cluster of cells around a maturing ova
Function of Fallopion tubes
(oviduct) site of fertilization, passageway to the uterus which recieves an ovum
Function of Cervix
neck of uterus, closes off lower end of the uterus
function of the endometrium
rich nutritive lining each month
function of the corpus luteum
only thing making progesterone
Role of GNRH in female reproduction
stimulates pituitary to release gonadotropins
Role of FSH
stimulate a follicle to develop-release estrogen
Role of LH
interstitial cells to promote testosterone
role of estrogen
causes endometrium to be built up, cause a rise in GNRH
role of progesterone
stimulates development of uterine lining and formation of placenta
When during a woman's cycle is she most likely to become pregnant?
day 11 or 12 anytime immediately before or after ovulation
What signlas the endometrium NOT to be shed if a woman is pregnant?
HCG hormone
Know the various STDs
gonorrhea, syphilis, chlamydia, aids, genital herpes, genital warts
Which one is very closely linked to cervical cancer in women?
genital warts
Which ones can be transmitted during pregnancy?
syphilis, herpes
Which can be transmitted during delivery?
gonorrhea, herpes
Which lead to infertility?
difference between birth control and contraception
contraception is the prevention of pregnancy
Which contraceptive methods are permanent?
sterilization and hysterectamy
Which methods also protect against STDs
condom, cervical cap