Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

80 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
An integrated group of cells with a common function, structure, or both.
A specialized center of body function composed of several different types of tissues
root system
All of a plant′s roots that anchor it in the soil, absorb and transport minerals and water, and store food.
shoot system
The aerial portion of a plant body, consisting of stems, leaves, and (in angiosperms) flowers
anchor a vascular plant, usually in soil
primary root that grows vertically downward
Lateral roots
smaller roots that branch off the taproot
Fibrous roots
mat of thin roots below soil surface with no main root
Adventitious roots
roots arising from the stem
point where leaves attach
stem segments between nodes
Shoot apex
tip of stem where elongation is usually concentrated
main photosynthetic organ of most vascular plants. Consists of blade and petiole. Not all leaves have petioles.
vascular tissue of leaves. Can be parallel-monocot or multibranched-eudicot.
Tissue Systems
Each plant organ has dermal, vascular, and ground tissues.
Dermal tissue
outer protective covering
single layer of tightly packed cells
waxy coating that helps prevent water loss
Vascular tissue
transports materials between roots and shoots
transports water and minerals upwards
transports sugars from leaves to rest of plant
Ground tissue
everything else, including cells for storage, photosynthesis, support, etc.
ground tissue internal to vascular tissue
ground tissue external to vascular tissue
complete their life cycle in a single year or less
live two years
live many years
areas where rapidly dividing, undifferentiated cells remain all through the life of the plant
Apical meristem
at tips of roots and in buds of shoots. Allow the plant to grow in length. This is called primary growth.
Lateral meristem
located near the periphery of the plant, usually in a cylinder. Allow growth in thickness of plant stems and roots. This is called secondary growth.
Plant Reproduction
alternate between haploid (1n) and diploid (2n) states.
diploid plant. Produces haploid spores by meiosis.
small haploid plants that produce gametes
plants with “naked” seeds that are not enclosed in ovaries (fruit). Seeds are exposed on cones.
seed plants that produce flowers and fruits as reproductive structures
Stamen and carpel
reproductive organs of plant
Sepal and petal
reproductive shoots of angiosperms
Horizontal underground stem
root hair
A tiny extension of a root epidermal cell, growing just behind the root tip and increasing surface area for absorption of water and minerals.
axillary bud
A structure that has the potential to form a lateral shoot, or branch. The bud appears in the angle formed between a leaf and a stem.
terminal bud
Embryonic tissue at the tip of a shoot, made up of developing leaves and a compact series of nodes and internodes.
apical dominance
Concentration of growth at the tip of a plant shoot, where a terminal bud partially inhibits axillary bud growth.
simple leaf
single undivided blade
compound leaf
Leaf divided into leaflets
doubly compound leaf
leaflets divided into smaller leaflets
parallel major veins that run the length of the leaf blade
multibranched network of major veins
The protective coat that replaces the epidermis in plants during secondary growth, formed of the cork and cork cambium
The vascular tissue of a stem or root.
vascular cylinder
The central cylinder of vascular tissue in a root.
vascular bundle
A strand of vascular tissues (both xylem and phloem) in a stem or leaf.
The contents of a plant cell exclusive of the cell wall.
indeterminate growth
A type of growth characteristic of plants, in which the organism continues to grow as long as it lives.
determinate growth
determinate growth

A type of growth characteristic of most animals and some plant organs, in which growth stops after a certain size is reached.
vascular cambium
A cylinder of meristematic tissue in woody plants that adds layers of secondary vascular tissue called secondary xylem (wood) and secondary phloem
Referring to nonwoody plants.
Cells that remain within an apical meristem as sources of new cells.
New cells that are displaced from an apical meristem and continue to divide until the cells they produce become specialized.
primary plant body
The tissues produced by apical meristems, which lengthen stems and roots.
root cap
A cone of cells at the tip of a plant root that protects the apical meristem.
zone of cell division
The zone of primary growth in roots consisting of the root apical meristem and its derivatives. New root cells are produced in this region.
zone of elongation
The zone of primary growth in roots where new cells elongate, sometimes up to ten times their original length.
zone of maturation
The zone of primary growth in roots where cells complete their differentiation and become functionally mature.
The innermost layer of the cortex in plant roots; a cylinder one cell thick that forms the boundary between the cortex and the vascular cylinder.
The outermost layer of the vascular cylinder of a root, where lateral roots originate.
leaf primordia
Fingerlike projections along the flanks of a shoot apical meristem, from which leaves arise.
eudicot stem
Vascular bundles form a ring, partitioned into pith (inside) and cortex (outside)
monocot stem
Vascular bundles throughout
not partitioned into pith and cortex
eudicot Eudicotyledons
flowering plants that produce tricolpates pollen
from 3 pores
roses; strawberries, blackberries and raspberries; apples and pears; plums, peaches and apricots; almonds; rowan and hawthorn; elms; figs; nettles; and hops and cannabis, carrots, celery, parsley, and ivy
monocot Monocotyledon
Flowering plants that produce pollen has one furrow or pore
Examples: grains (rice, maize, wheat), orchids, bamboo, palms
(plural, stomata )
A microscopic pore surrounded by guard cells in the epidermis of leaves and stems that allows gas exchange between the environment and the interior of the plant.
guard cells
The two cells that flank the stomatal pore and regulate the opening and closing of the pore.
The ground tissue of a leaf, sandwiched between the upper and lower epidermis and specialized for photosynthesis.
bundle sheath
A protective covering around a leaf vein, consisting of one or more cell layers, usually parenchyma.
palisade mesophyll
One or more layers of elongated photosynthetic cells on the upper part of a leaf; also called palisade parenchyma.
spongy mesophyll
Loosely arranged photosynthetic cells located below the palisade mesophyll cells in a leaf.
leaf trace
A small vascular bundle that extends from the vascular tissue of the stem through the petiole and into a leaf.
spongy mesophyll
Loosely arranged photosynthetic cells located below the palisade mesophyll cells in a leaf.
leaf trace
A small vascular bundle that extends from the vascular tissue of the stem through the petiole and into a leaf.