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25 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
p 389
INTRODUCTION
When was it?
1500 to 1700
p 389
INTRODUCTION
What were 2 sources to understand nature?
1. Bible
2. work of classical thinkers -- Aristotle
,
p 389
ROOTS OF SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION
What 2 major sources guided most Europeans' thiking about the natural world?
1. Bible was word of God.
2. teachings of Aristotle.
p 389
ROOTS OF SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION
What did Thomas Aquinas do?
combined Aristotle's thinking with Christian faith resulted in view of world as a satisfying whole
p 389
ROOTS OF SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION
What happened during Renaissance of Thomas Acquinas's view?
questioned it
p 389
ROOTS OF SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION
What were the roots?
1. questioning of Aristotle's views
2. own developments during Renaissance of medicine, math, astronomy
3. learned of other variety of ideas than Aristotle
4. influence of Greek rationalism
5. Renaissance thinkers observed used logic and observed the world themselves. Believed logic and reason can be used to discover world.
6. voyages of explorers
p 391
COPERNICUS AND KEPLER: A NEW VIEW OF UNIVERSE
When did SR begin?
began with work of Polish astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus.
p 391
COPERNICUS AND KEPLER: A NEW VIEW OF UNIVERSE
Give example of new world view
1. people believed for 2,000 years that Earth was center of universe -- geocentric theory.
2. in 2nd century, Ptlemy created theory that supported this.
3. Ancient and Muslim scientists pointed out problems
4. Copernicus used math and proposed heliocentric theory -- sun was at center. Earth turned on own axis. Explained why sun moved. In 1543, Copernicus published book.
5. In 1600's, Johannes kepler said orbits of planets were ovals, not circles.
p 392
GALILEO AND THE COPERNICAN THEORY
What did he do?
1. disproved Aristotle's theory of heavier objects falling faster
2. used math to describe path of projectiles
3. figured out how telescopes worked
4. discovered 4 moons revolving around Jupiter
5. saw that moon goes through phases
6. saw that moon was rough. Aristotle taught it was smooth
7. saw moons going around Jupiter. Aristotle said Earth was center of motion.
8. saw phases of Venus was going around sun.
p 393
CONFLICT WITH THE CHURCH
What was it?
1. Church saw Copernicus theory as dangerous and wrong. Could lead to people doubt the teachings.
2. in 1616, church warned Galileo not to teach Copernican theory
3. in 1632, Galileo published book, Dialogue on 2 Chief World Systems
4. in 1633, the pope called Galileo to Inquisition
5. accused him of heresy
p 393
GALILEO'S INFLUENCE
What was it?
1. church could not stop his influenc
2. scientists all over world read his Dialogue.
3. Inquisition ordered burning of Galileo's book
4. advanced scientific revolution
p 393
GALILEO'S INFLUENCE
Compare Galileo and kepler
1. Galileo used math and observation to explain motion of objects on Earth
2. Kepler's laws described movements of planets
p 394
ISAAC NEWTON AND LAW OF GRAVITY
Who was he? What did he do?
1. born in 1642, same year Galileo died
2. greatest discovery was law of gravity -- a single force explained a falling apple on Earth and movements of heavenly bodies. All physical bodies had a law of attraction between them.
3. tried to figure out what kept moon in orbit around sun
4.
p 394
ISAAC NEWTON AND LAW OF GRAVITY
What did strength of gravity depend on?
1. size of masses and distance between them
2. moon and earth tugged on each other and cancelled out
p 394
ISAAC NEWTON AND LAW OF GRAVITY
What did he publish?
in 1687, published "Principles". It presented law of gravity and 3 laws of motion. Others said planets moved around sun. Newton's law's explained why planets moved aroiund sun. Changed way people looked at universe.
p 395
SCIENTIFIC METHOD
What was key outcome of Scientific Revolution?
scientific method
p 395
SCIENTIFIC METHOD
Who influenced key outcome of Scientific Method?
Francis Bacon and Rene Descartes
p 395
SCIENTIFIC METHOD
Who was Frances Bacon?
1. born in England in 1561
2. said people could gain knowledge if rid minds of false beliefs
3. outlined method of scientific investigation depended on close observation
p 395
SCIENTIFIC METHOD
Who was Rene Descartes?
1. born in France in 1596
2. believed people should doubt everything until logic proved it to be true
p 395
SCIENTIFIC METHOD
What is Scientific Method?
combines logic, math, and observation
p 395
SCIENTIFIC METHOD
What are 5 steps of Scientific Method?
1. state question or problem
2. form hypothesis
3. design and conduct experiment
4. measure data
5. analyzes data to determine if hypothesis was right

--
Galileo example of falling objects showed this method
p 395
SCIENTIFIC METHOD
What is an advantage of the Scientific Method?
any trained scientist can repeat it
p 395
SCIENTIFIC METHOD
What was the importance of the Scientific Method?
1. represented break from past
2. fewer people looked to traditional authorities for answers to scientific problems
3. For Newton and Descartes, science was a way to better understand the world God made.
4. spurred invention of new tools -- telescope, barometer, microscope, etc. -- to learn of universe.
p 396
KEY INVENTIONS
What were some?
1. telescope
2. microscope, in 1500's. Leeuwenhock was first to see bacteria.
3. barometer, measures changes in the pressure of the atomosphere -- Torricelli filled a glass tube with mercury. Useful for predicting weather.
4. thermometer -- likely made by Galileo.
5.1 early 1700's, German scientis Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit, made thermometer more accurate
6. steam engine
p 396
KEY INVENTIONS
What did Europeans use the inventions for?
1. to become commercial and industrial leaders of the world
2. to shape our world