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72 Cards in this Set

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hormone that is produced in the duodenum when acidic chyme enters the small intestine, and stimulates production of bile
Carbohydrate Metabolism, Amino Acid Metabolism, Lipid Metabolism, Synthesis of Plasma Proteins, Phagocytosis by Kupfer Cells, Formation of Bilirubin, Storage, Detox, and Activation of Vitamin D are all:
functions of the liver
Glucose is stored as ______ by the liver and changed back to glucise when the blood glucose level is low
Of the 20 amino acids needed for the production of human proteins, the liver is able to synthesize 12, called the:
nonessential amino acids
The process by which nonessential amino acids are synthesized is called
Why do we need essential amino acids in our diet
because the liver cannot synthesize them
Salivary glands secrete:
amylase which converts starch to maltose
Stomach secretes
pepsin which converts proteins to polypeptides, and hydrochloric acid which changes pepsinogen to pepsin and maintains a ph of 1-2 and destroys pathogens
Liver secretes:
bile salts which emulsify fats
Pancreas secretes:
amylase (converts starch to maltose), Lipas (converts emulsified fats into fatty acids and glycerol), and Trypsin (converts polypeptides to peptides)
Small Intestine secretes:
peptidases (converts peptides to amino acids) and surcrase/maltase/lactase (converts dissacharides into monosaccharides)
Salivary glands act in this site:
oral cavity
Liver act in this site:
small intestine
Pancreas act in this site:
small intestine
Excess amino acids are deaminated in the liver and converted to:
urea, a nitrogenous waste product that is removed from the blood by the kidneys and excreted in urine
formed for the transport of lipids into the blood to other tissues
liver is the main site of the process called
beta oxidation
process where fatty acid molecules are split into two carbon acetyl groups and used by the liver to produce energy or combined to form ketones for transport to other cells for energy production
beta oxidation
synthesizes albumin, clotting factors, and globulins
the liver
the most abundant plasma protein, helps maintain blood volume by pulling tissue fluid into capillaries
clotting factors produced by the liver that circulate in the blood until needed for chemical clotting
prothrombin and fibrinogen
synthesized by the liver to become part of lipoproteins or act as carriers for other molecules in the blood
fixed macrophages of the liver
Kupffer cells (or stellate reticuloendothelial cells)
they phagocytize worn blood cells and pathogens that circulate through the liver
Kupffer cells (or stellate reticuloendothelial cells)
Many bacteria enter the liver from this place after being absorbed along with water
formed from the heme portion of the hemoglobin of worn red blood cells
stores the minerals iron and copper; fat soluable vitamins A, D, E, and K, and the watersoluable vitamin B12
syntehsizes enzymes that alter hamrful substances to less harmful ones
comes from the colon bacteria and is converted to urea, a less toxic substance
activates vitamin D
muscular sac about 3 to 4 inches long, located on the undersurface of the left lobe of the liver
bile in the common hepatic duct from the liver flows through the
cystic duct
stores bile until it is needed in the small intestine
gall bladder
concentrates bile by absorbing water
stimulates contraction of the smooth muscle of the wall of the gallbladder
cholecystokinin, hormone secreted by the duodenal mucosa of the duodenum
contraction of this forces bile into the cystic duct, then into the common bile duct, which empties into the duodenum
about 6 inches long, located posterior to the greater curvature of the stomach
the digestive secretions of the pancreas are produced by
exocrine glands called acini
small ducts of the acini unite to form larger ducts and finally converge into the:
pancreatic duct
the pancreatic duct joins the common bile duct to enter the duodenum at the
hepatopancreatic ampulla
this duct has a direct line from the pancreas into the duodenum
accessory duct
Name the pancreatic enzymes:
pancreatic lipase (converts emulsified fats to fatty acids and monoglycerides), trypsinogen (an incative enzyme that is changed to active trypsin in the duodenum and digests polypeptides to shorter chains of amino acids), chymotrypsin, carboxypeptidase, elastase, ribonuclease and deoxyribonuclease
bicarbonate juice is (alkaline/acidic) because of its high sodium bicarbonate content
The function of bicarbonate juice is to:
neutralize the hydrochloric acid in gastric juice as it enters the duodenum
The pH of duodenal chyme is__________ to prevent corrosive damage to the mucosa and create the optimal pH for intestinal enzyme action
Secretion of the pancreatic juice is stimulated by
the hormones of the duodenal mucosa
stimulates the production of bicarbonate pancreatic juice
stimulates secretion of the pancreatic enzyme juice
cholecystokinin, hormone secreted by the duodenal mucosa of the duodenum
Why would you consider a liver function test when giving medications?
because the liver metabolizes many drugs and there could be a toxic level of the drug in the system if it was not metabolized at a normal rate
diminished sense of taste, greater liklihood of periodontal disease and oral cancer, decrecreased GI tract secretions, decreased effectiveness of peristalsis, indigestion, constipation and the risk of colon cancer are all affected by:
growing older
blood in stool can indicate:
hemorrhoids, early sign of cancer, inflammatory diseases such as ulcerative colitis
abdominal distention in the presence of nausea and vomiting may indicate:
intestinal obstruction
Rationale for asking "are you or have you recently taken antibiotics"
diarrhea due to C. difficile can be caused by recen antibiotic use
Black stools may indicate:
Fatty stools can occur with
pancreatic disease
Excess alcohol intake is associated with:
liver disease and pancreatitis
You would ask "do you bruise or bleed easily" because:
bleeding is associated with liver disease, b/c clotting factors are made in the liver
A foul smell from a patient's stool indicates:
Stool that has a pale or clay color may indicate
liver or gallbladder disease
medications that can cause irritation and bleeding in the GI tract
NSAIDs or aspirin
hospitalization or recent antibiotic use is a risk factor for
C. difficile
there can be an overgrowth of C. difficile with antibiotic use due to:
decrease in the normal flora
The toxins produced by this can cause diarrhea, colitits, toxic megacolon, dehydration, colonic perforation and sometimes death
C. difficile
signs of C. difficle infection are:
diarrhea, nausea, anorexia, and abdominal tenderness or pain
This culture has a diet of foods high in animal fat and fried foods and low in fiber, fruits and vegetables. They see obesity as a positive sign and see those who are thin as "not having enough meat on their bones"
African Americans
Their diet is deficient in Vit A, iron and calcium
This culture may eat food only w/ their right hand (and toileting w/ their left), may consider eating and drinking at the same meal as unhealthy, as well as mixing hot and cold foods. May also refuse to eat meat that is not halal.
This culture is prohibited from ingesting alcohol or eating pork so may refuse medications that include alcohol, like mouthwashes, toothpaste, alcohol based syrups and elixers, and products derived from grafts
Muslim Arabs
This body system has priority over all other body parts in the Arab's perception of health, and thus are the most common reason why they seek care
Means "fit for eating"
Culture that avoids pork and may separate their milk products from meat products by use of different bowls/utensils/serving materials
Good health is largely a part of "God's will" to this culture, and many believe in a "hot and cold balance theory"
Mexican Americans