Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/46

Click to flip

46 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
traits
phyical characteratics that an organism can pass on to its offspring
Heredity
the passing of traits from parents to offspring
genetics
the study of Heredity
purebred
any organism that always produces offspring with the same form of a trait as the parent
filial
"son" in Latin. The generation of offspring
gene
segment of DNA on a chromosome that codes for a sepific trait
allele
a different form of a gene
hybrid
when an organism has two different alleles for the same trait
dominamt allele
an allele that always shows up in an organism when present
recessive allele
an allele that is masked or hidden when a dominant allele is present
probability
the likilehood of a particuler event occuring
Punnett Square
chart that shows all the possible alleles from a genetic cross
Phenotype
the physical make-up of an organism or its visible traits
Genotype
genetic make-up of an organism or its set of alleles
homozygous
when an organism has two identical alleles for the same trait
Example~TT,tt
heterozygous
when an organism has two different alleles for the same trait
Example~Tt
codominance
when alleles are neither dominant nor recessive
incomplete dominance
is a condition in which two different alleles of a gene, producing different phenptypes, produce a blended phenotype when inherited together
Walter Sutton
an American scientist who was studying grasshoppers and discovered that each of its reproducted cells had half the number of chromosomes as its body cells
crossing over
when corresponding segments of chromosomes exchange parts and produce allele combinations that are different from either parent
gamete
(reproduction cells), (eggs & sperm)
Meiosis
in Greek "to dimish", a process in which the chromosomes number is reduced by half to make reproduction cells(eggs & sperm)
Mitosis
a process where a cell divides into two daughter cells
Gregor Mendel
who was he/what did he do/ what did he discover?
"father of genetics". In the 1850s he researched peaplants. He was a young priest from central Europe
He discovered that traits inheriant to their parents and traits get passed on. One trait can be hidden in 1 generation & resurface in a later generation
Nitrogen Bases
makes up DNA
genetic code
genes that control teh production pf proteins based on the order of nitrogen bases
Chromosome Theory of Inheritance
states that genes are carried from parent to offspring on chromosomes
ribosome
a small grain-like structure in the cytoplasm of a cell where proteins are made
mutation
any change in the DNA of a gene/chromosome
substitution
one nitrogen change for another
deletion
one nitrogen base is deleted
insertion
one nitrogen base is added
Protein Synthesis
the production of proteins that take place on the ribosomes of the cytoplasm
Amino Acids
building blocks of protein
List nitrogen bases (pairs)
Adenine(A)
with
Thymine(T)(if RNA Uracil(U))

Guanine(G)
with
Cytosine(C)
RNA
play a major role in the production of proteins
tRNA
transports amino acids from the ribosome to a growing protein
t=transfer
mRNA
copies a code from DNA and carries it to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm
m=messenger
codon
a set of 3 nitrogen bases that codes for a sepific amino acids
chromatin
one of the identical rods of a chromosome
P Generation
parental generation
F1 Generation
first filial(offspring)
F2 Generation
second filial (offspring)
chromosome
a doubled rod of condenced chromatin; contains DNA that carries genetic infomation
how can mutation be harmful, helpful, or not make a difference in regards to an organism
Harmful~if it reduces the organism's chance for survivial and reproduction. it depends on the organism's enviroment. some dieases are caused by mutations.
helpful~ inprove an organism's chance of survivial and reproduction.
describe the role of chromosomes in inhetitance
the role is that 12 sperm chromosomes joined with 12 egg chromosomes to carry genes to their pffspring