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81 Cards in this Set

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Who were the Indo-Europeans?
the indo-europeans were a group of nomadic peoples who came from the steppes
What were the steppes?
dry grasslands that stretched north of the Caucasus
What and where were the Caucasus?
they were mountains between the Black and Caspian seas
What languages trace their origins back to forms of Indo-European language?
English, Spanish, Persian, and Hindi
the definition of migrations?
movements of a people from one region to another
What Indo-European group occupied Anatolia?
the hittites
What was Anatolia?
Southwest Asian peninsula AKA Asia Minor ; high, rocky plateau rich in timber and agriculture
What was the capital of the Hittite empire?
Hattusas
What was the language of the Babylonians that the Hittites adopted?
Akkadian
Who did the Hittites borrow cultural ideas from?
Mesopotamians
What caused the Hittites to excell in war?
their chariots and iron weapons
What were the hittites the first in SW Asia to do?
work with iron and make weapons out of it
Why did the Hittite empire fall?
a great wave of invasions from the north
What was the homeland of the Aryans?
between the caspian and aral seas.
What were vedas?
sacred literature of the aryans ; 4 collections of prayers, spells, and rituals
what was the most important of the vedas and how many hymns did it contain?
Rig Veda ; contained 1028 hymns
What did the Aryans call their enemies?
dasas
What was the difference between the aryans and the dasas?
aryans were taller, lighter-skinned; spoke a different language; dasas were town-dwellers who lived in walled communitites
What did the aryans not have?
a writing system
What were the four Aryan castes?
1.Brahmins
2. warriors
3. traders
4. peasants
What were Aryan priests called?
Brahmins
Who were shudras?
laborers who did unwanted work
What was a distinguishing feature of the Aryan caste system?
Varna ; skin color
What was the major kingdom of Aryan life?
Magadha
What is the Mahabharata?
the great epic of India; tells about struggles of Aryan kings
What is the most important part of the Mahabharata, and what did it tell the story of?
Bhagavad Gita ; Indian prince going to war, god Krishna was chariot driver
What are the Upanishads?
the hidden meaning of vedic hymns
What is moksha?
state of perfect understanding of all things
What is atman?
individual soul of a living being
What is brahman?
world soul that contains and unites all atmans
when does a person achieve moksha?
when they understand the relationship between atman and brahman
What three personalities does Brahman have?
Brahma - creator
Vishnu - protector
Shiva - destroyer
What two personalities did Vishnu have?
Krishna - divine cowherder
Rama - perfect king
What goddess became important in Hinduism after Brahma?
Devi - great mother goddess
What are the three paths to achieving moksha?
path of right thinking, path of right action, path of religious devotion
What two other religions did the content of the Upanishads lead to?
Buddhism and Jainism
What is Jainism?
a religion founded in India whose members believed that everything in the universe has a soul and shouldn't be harmed
Who was Jainism founded by?
Mahavira
Who was Siddhartha Gautama?
the founder of Buddhism
What did Siddhartha see when he left the palace four times?
1. old man
2. sick man
3. corpse
4. holy man who was at peace with himself
What is enlightenment?
wisdom
What are the four noble truths?
1. life is filled with suffering and sorrow
2. desire of temporary pleasures is the cause of all suffering.
3. to end all suffering, end desires
4. follow Eightfold Path to overcome desires
What is nirvana?
Buddha's word for realease from selfishness and pain
Which Hindu ideas did Buddha accept?
reincarnation, cyclical view of history, and moksha
What is the sangha, and who were the first monks admitted into it?
Buddhist religious order ; 5 disciples to hear Buddha's first sermon
Who were the laity?
those who hadn't devoted their entire life to religion
What is dharma?
doctrine or teachings
What made up the "Three Jewels" of buddhism?
religious community + dharma
What Buddhist monastery developed into a great university?
Nalanda
What are the Jatakas?
legends about Buddha's previous reincarnations
What are the stupas?
sacred mounds that are said to have Buddha's relics
Who were the minoans?
powerful seafaring people that dominated trade in the eastern mediterranean
What did the Minoans trade?
pottery, swords, figurines, and vessels
What was the Minoan capital city?
Knossos
What innovations / characteristics did the Minoans have?
-invented the olympics
-sports: bull leaping, wrestling, boxing
-graceful, athletic, obsessed with beauty
-invented frescos
What caused the Minoan civilization to end?
a series of earthquakes followed by a volcanic eruption, followed by a tidal wave, followed by invasions
Who were the Phoenicians?
seafaring people of Southwest Asia who lived in modern-day Lebanon
What were the first major Phoenician cities?
Byblos, Tyre, Sidon
What were the Phoenicians the first mediterranean people to do?
go beyond the strait of gibraltar
What were Sidon, Tyre, and Byblos known for?
Sidon&Tyre- red/purple dye
Byblos- trading center for papyrus
What was the greatest phoenician colony?
carthage
What did the Phoenicians trade, and were they imports or exports?
The phoenicians traded IMPORTS such as wine, weapons, precious metals, ivory, and slaves
What was the red/purple dye made from?
murex, a snail that lived in Sidon and Tyre waters
What was the Phoenician's biggest and greatest innovation?
the alphabet
After Phoenician cities were captured by Assyrians, who ruled them?
Babylonians and King Cyrus I
Where did Hebrews settle and where was it?
Canaan, between Jordan river and mediterranean sea [land god promised them]
What is the torah?
sacred writings about early history of the hebrews
Who was the 'father' of Hebrew people?
Abraham
Where did Abraham originally live and where did he move to after he was told by God to do so?
Ur; Canaan
What was the hebrew god?
yahweh ; not a physical being with no physical images
What was the covenant and who was it between?
Abraham and Yahweh ; Abraham would obey Yahweh and Yahweh would protect Abraham and his descendants
What was it called when the Hebrews fled Egypt?
the exodus
Who was moses?
the man who led the hebrews out of slavery
What is tribute and who had to pay it to whom?
peace money paid by weaker power to stronger power ; Isreal / Judah to Assyria
What was the Isreal capital?
Samaria
What king attacked Jerusalem and caused it to fall?
King Nebuchadnezzar
Where were the survivors of the fall of Jerusalem exiled to, and who urged them to keep their religion alive there?
Babylon ; Ezekiel
What Persian King freed the Jews?
King Cyrus the Great
What was the first hebrew temple?
Solomon
Who were the first three great hebrew kings?
Sol, David, Solomon
What is another term for the untouchables?
scheduled class