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24 Cards in this Set

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difference between what students can do on their own and what they can do under the guidance on an adult or more knowledgeable peer based on Vygotsky's view of learning pg. 62
zone of proximal development
an easy-to-apply form of dynamic assessment in which students are given cues or prompts during this type of assessment to see how much help they need in order to respond correctly pg. 62
assisted testing
Alphabet knowledge is tested during this assessment on five levels. pg. 63
Durrel Analysis of Reading Difficulty
Known also as trial teaching, this type of teaching is based on the information yielded by an assessment. This type of teaching is "thoughtfully planned" and contains "our best guesses" about what might work for a particular student. pg. 63
diagnostic teaching
The four main categories that assessment measures fall into. pg 64
screening, diagnostic, monitoring, and outcome
Type of assessment used to identify students who need additional assessment because they appear to be at risk. pg. 64
screening
Ongoing assessment designed to provide teachers with data they can use to plan and revise instruction. Ex. monitoring pg. 65 This type of assessment is ongoing and used to inform instruction and takes place during learning. pg. 72
formative assessment
This type of assessment is given at the end of a program to evaluate its effectiveness. Ex. outcome assessment pg. 65 Summarizes students' progress at the end of a unit or a semester and is administered after learning has taken place. Ex. norm-referenced and high-stakes tests are generally used for this purpose. pg. 72
summative assessment
Often referred to as standardized tests, the performance of students is compared to that of a norming or sample group.
norm-referenced test
The most used score for norm-referenced tests of reading and writing. pg. 66
percentile rank
The total number of items correct, which has no meaning until it is transformed into a percentile rank, grade equivalent, or other score. pg. 66
raw score
Performance is characterized as being equivalent to that of other students in a particular grade. These are misleading and easily misunderstood and so should be used with care. pg. 67
grade-equivalent score
Places students on a scale of 1-99 and represent equal units to be added and subtracted and used for comparing performance on subtests. pg. 67
normal-curve equivalents
A combination of the words standard and nine and describes a nine-point scale. pg 67
stanine
A continuous ranking of scores from the lowest levels of a series of norm-referenced tests through the highest levels from K-high school and are useful for tracking long-tern growth. Two specialized forms are the DRP and Lexile units. pg. 67
scaled scores
Indicates the degree to which scores are above or below the mean. pg. 68
standard deviation
These tests compare students' performance with a criterion or standard. Ex. BEAR pg. 70
criterion-referenced test
Standard of performance against which students' achievement might be assessed. pg. 70
benchmark
Assessment tasks and administration are carefully specified so that anyone taking the test does so under similar conditions. This term is also used to mean a norm-referenced test. pg. 70
standardized test
The consistency of an assessment device. It is the degree to which the device would yeield similar results if given again to the same person or group. pg. 73
reliability
The degree to which an assessment device measures what it intends to measure; also, the degree to which the results can be used to make an educational decision. pg. 73
validity
Statistical measure that expresses in mathematical terms the degree to which two variables are related. pg. 74
correlation coefficient
Estimate of the difference between the obtained score and what the score would be if the test were perfect. pg. 75
standard error of measurement (SEM)
Can take many forms such as on the basis of geography, gender, socioeconomic status, ethnicity, or race. pg. 75
test bias