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54 Cards in this Set

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galea aponeurotica
connective tissue sheet covering the superior aspect of the cranium.
cranium
vault -like portio of the skull encasing the brain
sutures
pseudo-joints that join the various bones of the skull to form the cranium
interacrainal pressure (ICP)
pressure exerted on the brain by the blood and cerebrospinal fluid
meninges
three membranes that surround and protect the rain and spinal cord. They are the dura mater, pia mater, and arachnoid membrane.
dura mater
rough layer of the meninges firmly attached to the interior of the skull and interior of the spinal column
pia mater
inner and most delicate layer of the meninges. It covers the convolutions of the brain and spinal cord.
arachnoid membrane
middle layer of the meniges.
cerebrospinal fluid
fluid surrounding and bathing the brain and spinal cord (elements fo teh central nervous system)
cerebrum
largest part of the brain . Its consists of two hemishpheres separated by a deep longitudinal fissure. It is the seat of consicousness and the center of the higher mental functions shuch as memory, learing, reasoning , judgment, intelligence, and emotions.
cerebellum
portion of the brain located dorsally to the pons and medulla oblongata. It plays an important role in the fine control of voluntary muscular movments
brainstem
the part of the brain connecting the cerebral hemispheres with the spinal cord. It is comprised of the medulla oblongata, the pons, and the midbrain.
midbrain
portion of the brain connectin the pons and cerebellum with the cerebral hemispheres
hypothalamus
portion of the brain important for controling crtain metablolic activities
Thalamus
switching station between the pons and the cerebrum in the brain
riticular activatin system (RAS)
a series of nervous tissures keeping the dhuman system in a state of consciousness.
pon
process of tissure responsible for the communication interchange between the cerebellum, the cerebrum, mid brain, and the spinal cord.
medulla oblongata
lower portion of the brainstem containing the respiratiory, cardiac, and vasomotor centers.
cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP)
the pressure moving blood through the brain.
autoregulation
process that controls blood flow to the brain tissure by causing alterations in the blod pressure
vertebrae
the 33 bones making up the vertebral colum singular vertebra.
vertebral body
short column of bone that forms the weight bearing portion of a vertebra.
spinal canal
opening in the vertebrae that accommodates the spinal cord.
transverse process
bony out growth of the vertebral pedicle that serves as a site for muscle attachment and articulation with the ribs.
spinous process
prominence at the posterior part of a vertebra
intervertebral disk
cartilaginous pad between vertebrae that serves as a shock absorber.
what is the percentage does the brain consume?
20%
name the divisions of the vertebral column
cervical spine
thoracic spine
lumbar spine
sacral spine
coccygeal spine
xiphisternal joint
union between xiphoid process and body of the sternum.
pulmonary hilum
central medial reion of the lung where the bronchi and pulmonary vasculatrue enter the lung.
great vessels
the large arteries and veins located in the mediastinum that enter and exit the heart; the aorta, superior and inferior vena cave, pulmonary arteries an, and pulmonary veins.
ligamentum arteriousm
cordlike remnant of a fetal vessel connecting the pulmonary arter to the aorta at the aortic isthmus.
centeral nervous system
the brain and the pinal cord
peripheral neervous system
part of the nervous system that extends throughout the body and is composed of the crainal nervous arising from the brain and the peripheral nerves arising from the spinal cord. Its subdivisions are the somatic and the autonomic nervous system
Somatic nervous sytem
part of the nervous system controlling voluntary bodily funtions.
autonomic nervous system
part of the nervousystem controlling involuntary bodily funtions. It is divided into the sympathetic and parasympthetic systems.
sympathetic nervous system
division of the autonomic nervous sytem that prepares the body of stressful stuations. Its action is mediated by the nurotransmistters epinephrine and norepinephrine.
parasympathetic nervous system
division of the autonomic nervous system that is responsible for ocntrolling vegetative funtions. Its action are mediated by the nerurotransmitter acetylcholine.
neruron
nerve cell; the fundamental component of the nervous system.
Nerotransmistter
a substance that is relased fromt he axon terminal of a presynaptic nerron upon excitation and that travels across the synaptic cleft to etih excite or inhibit the target cell . Examples inclue acechylholin, norephine, and dopamine.
spinal cord
centeral nervous system pathways responsible for transmitting sensory input form the body to the brain and the conducting motor impulses fromt eh brain to the body muscles and organds.
anterior medial fissure
deep crease along the ventral surface of the spinal cord that divides the cord into right and lift halves.
posterior medial sulcus
shallow longitudinal groove along the dorsal surface of the spinal cord.
gray matter
areas in the central nervous system dominated by nerve cell bodies ; the centeral portion of the spinal cord.
white matter
material that surrounds gray matter in the spinal cord, made up largely of axons
ascending tracts
bundles of the axons along the spinal cord that transmit signals from the body to the brain
desecending tracts
bundles of eh axons along the spinal cord that transmit singals from the brain to the body.
crainal nerves
twelve pairs of nerves that exted fromt eh lower surface of the brain.
autonomic ganglia
groups of autonomic nerve cells located outsid the central nervous system
Pre-ganglionic nerves
nervi fibers that extend fromt eh centeral nervous system tot he autonomic ganglia.
Postganglionic nerves
nerve fibers that extend from the autonomic ganglia to t he garget tissues.
what are the types f sympathetic receptors?
Adrenergic
alpha1,2
Beta1,2
Dopaminergic
What cranial nerves carrying parasympathetic fibers?
5
7
1
9
10
Name the endocrine glands.
hypothalmus
pituitary
thyroid and parathyroid
Thymus
pancreas
adrenals
gonads
pineal