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25 Cards in this Set

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Eluviation
The washing out of fine soil components from the A-horizon by downward-percolating water.
Solum
The O, A, and B horizons in the sub-profile where living roots and plant and animal life are confined to.
Soil Profile
A vertical section through a soil showing its succession of horizons and the underlying parent material.
Laterite
A red, highly leached soil type found in the tropics.
Leaching
The depletion of soluble materials from the upper soil by downward-percolating water.
Regolith
The layer of rock and mineral fragments that nearly everywhere covers Earth's surface.
Differential Weathering
The variation in the rate and degree of weathering caused by such factors as mineral makeup, degree of jointing, and climate.
Fall
A type of movement that refers to the free falling of detached individual peices of any size.
Secondary Enrichment
The concentration of minor amounts of metals that are scattered through unweathered rock.
Horizon
A layer in the soil profile.
Parent Material
The material upon which a soil develops.
Weathering
Disintegration and decomposition of rock at or near Earth's surface.
Talus
An accumulation of rock debris at the base of a cliff.
Pedalfer
Soil of humid regions in the B horizon.
Humus
Organic matter in soil produced by the decomposition of plants and animals.
Soil
The portion of regolith that supports plant growth.
Pedocal
Soil associated with drier regions in the upper horizons.
Mass wasting
Transfer of rock material downslope under the influence of gravity.
Erosion
Incorporation and transportation of material by a mobile agent, usually water, wind, or ice.
Mechanical Weathering
The breaking down of a rock into smaller peices made up of the rock's original material.
Frost Wedging
The mechanical breakup of rock caused by the expansion of freezing water in cracks and crevices.
Chemical Weathering
The processes by which the internal structure of a mineral is altered by the removal and addition of elements.
Exfoliation Domes
A large, dome-shaped structure, usually composed of granite, formed by sheeting.
Sheeting
A mechanical weathering process characterized by the splitting off of slablike sheets of rock.
Spheroidal Weathering
Any weathering process that tends to produce a spherical shape from an initially blocky shape.