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56 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
substrate
reactant affected by an enzyme
active site
retgion on a n enzyme that can bid with a specific substrate or substrates
nucleic acid
large complex organic molecule that stores and transmits genetic information
nucleotide
unit of a nucleic acid that is made up of a five carbon sugar,,, a phosphate group and a nitrogenous base
physical property
characteristic of matter that can be observed and measured without permanenetly changing the identity of the matter.
chemical property
property that desvribes a substances ability to change into a new substance as a result of a chemical reaction
phase
physical property of matter that describes one of a number of different states of the same substance
atom
smallest particle of matter that can exist and still have the properties of a particular kind of matter.
nucleus
in atoms- the center which contains neutrons and protons and accounts for 99.9 percent of the atoms mass in cells -the organelle that controls the cells activities and contains dna.
proton
positively charged subatomic particle lovated in the nucleus
neutron
subatomic particle that is electrically neutral and is lovated in the atomic nucleus
electron
negatively charged subatomic particle lovated outside the atomic nucleus
energy level
one of a series of orbits in which electrons travel around the nucleus of an atom
atomic number
number of protons in the nucleus of an atom identifies each element
mass number
total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom
element
substance consisting entirley of one type of atom
isotope
atom of an element that has a different number of neutrons than other atoms of the same element
compound
matter composed of two or more elements chemically bonded
chemical bonding
process by which atoms of elements combine to achieve stability
ionic bond
chemical bond that involves the transfer of electrons
ion
charged particle
covalent bond
chemical bond formed by the sharing of electrons
molecule
collection of two or more atoms covalentyly bonded
chemical reaction
any process in which a chemical change occurs
mixture
substance composed of two or more elements of compounds that are mixed together but not chemically combined
rna
nucleic acid made of a single chain of nucleotides that acts as a messenger between dna and the ribosome and carries out the process b which roteins are made from amino acids
dna
nucleic acid that stores and transmits genetic information from one generation of an organism to the next by coding for the production of a cells proteins
solution
homogeneous mixture in which one substance is dissolved in another
solvent
substance in which a solute is dissolved to produce a solution
solute
substance that is dissolved in a mixture
acid
compound that releases hydrogen ions in solution
base
compound that releases hydroxide ions in solution
neutralization reaction
chemical reaction that occurs when the hydrogen ions of a strong acid react with the hydroxide ions of a strong base to form water and a salt
pH scale
measurement system that ranges from0 to 14 and indicates the relative conccentrations of hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions in a substance
pH scale
measurement system that ranges from0 to 14 and indicates the relative conccentrations of hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions in a substance
pH scale
measurement system that ranges from0 to 14 and indicates the relative conccentrations of hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions in a substance
pH scale
measurement system that ranges from0 to 14 and indicates the relative conccentrations of hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions in a substance
pH scale
measurement system that ranges from0 to 14 and indicates the relative conccentrations of hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions in a substance
suspension
mixture contaning nondixxolved particles distributed within a solid, liquid,or gas
organic compound
primarily those compounds that contain carbon
inorganic compound
compounds that do not contain carbon
polymerization
process by which large compounds are constructed by joining smaller compounds
monomer
small compound that can be joined togherher with other small compounds to form polymers
polymer
large compound formed by combinations of monomers
macromolecule
large polymer
dehydration synthesis
reation in which small molecules join to form a large molecule, removing water in the process
disaccharide
double sugar formed from the combination of two simple sugars
polysaccharide
large molecule formed when many monosaccharides link togther
hydrolysis
catabolic reaction that splits apart molecules with the consumption of water
lipid
waxy or oily organic compound that stores energy in its bonds
cholesterol
compound found in animal fats, meats, and dairy products that can build cells but in exvess can be a risk factor in heart disease
protein
complex polmer of amino acids that bilds and repairs cells.`
amino acid
substance that has an amino group on one end and a carboxyl group on the other,,, makes up the building blocks for proteins
peptide bond
covalent bond that joins two amino acids
catalyst
substance that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction without being changed or used up by the reaction
enzyme
one of a number of special protein catayyst contained in living organisms