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52 Cards in this Set

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Structure Function
Different structure of cells do different things
Terminal Cell
Doesn't divide
Animal Cell
(human)
Complex
Human Cells
Plasma Membrane-OuterMembrane
Cytoplasm/ Fluid
Nuclues/controls celluar activites
Cells
Have their own idenification they reconize proteins provide rigidity to give cell shape & attach cell-cell recognition
Lipid Bilayer
Fabric of the membrane
Phospholipids
Cholestrol and glycolipids
Hydrophlic
lolipop shaped(water-loving)uncharged polar head
Hydrophobic
uncharged polar tail
Glycolipids
Found only on the outer plasma Membrane surface
Transport Proteins
Protein lets energy in and out. Somtimes ATP(energy) needs to help to let protein in and out
Integral Proteins
The centry's . Cells have thier own idenification they reconize proteins provide rigdity togive cell shape. Attactment Cell-cell recognition
Enzymatic Proteins
Activity as a team. Locked in membrane. Receptor for signal transduction/hormone
Microvill
Small hair /fingers/increas surface area and interact to the enviroment
How Cells Contact other Cells
Tight Junction- strongest-skin
Desmosome -next-zipper-achoring juction
Gap Juction Weakest two channels linking up transport /nervous system
Extracellular Fluid
(watery enviroment)
Diffusion from high to low until desolved . Concentration gradient
Simple diffusion
Through the phospholipid bilayer-gases, water
Osmosis
Water diffusion
Facilitated Diffusion
Small lipik insoluble solutes
In a hypotonis solution (water) cells take in water by osmosis/bloated/burst(Lyse)
Osmolarity
Over consentration of salts
Would shrink bloodvessels
Isotonic
blood should be at a correct consentration of salt
Hypertonic
Too much salt
Hypotonic
Too little salt
Active transport Primary
Hydrolysis of ATP results in the phosphorylation of the transport protein / it plumbs the bound solute across the membrane
Secondary active transport
A single ATP powered pump can indirectly drive the secondary active transport of several other solutions
Vesicular Transport
Large particles, macromolecules and fluids are transported across plasma
Exocytosis
releasing waste out of the cell into a vesicle(baggy in your cell)
Enocytosis
Clathrin and clathir Vesicle taking into the cell
Trancytosis
Passing across the cell
Lysosome
organ out has very low PH to degrade whats int the clathrin
Phagosome
endocytotic vesicle
Pinocytosis
fluid phase endocytosis
Caveolin coated vesicles
(caveolae
selective endocytosis external substance binds to membrane receptors
Clolesterol regulation
Plasma Membrane
Membrane made of a double layer of lipids with proteins embedded, external barrier
Cytoplasmic Organelles
Cellular region between the nuclear and plasma membranes, consist of fluids
Mitochondria
Rodlike, double-membrane structures, inner membrane folded into projections called cristael Powerhouse of cell
Ribosomes
Dense particles consistin of two subunits, each composed of robosomal RNA and protein synthesis
Rough endoplasmic reticulum
Membrane system enclosing a cavity, the cisterna, and coiling through the cytoplasm. Sugar groups to proteins
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
Membranous system of sacs and tubles free of ribosomes
Site of lipid and steriod cholesterol-drug detoxification
Golgi apparatus
A stack of smooth membrane sacs and associated vesicles close to the nucleus. Packages, modidies and segregates proteins for secretion
Lysosomes
Membranous sacs containing acid hydrolases Sites of intracellular digestion
Peroxisomes
Membranous sacs of oxidase enzymes. The enzymes detoxify a number of toxic substances. hydrogen peroxide
Microtubules
Cylindrical structures made of tubulin proteins. Support the cell and give it shape
Microfilaments
Fine filaments of the contractile protein actin. Involved in muscle contraction and intracellular movement
Intermediate filaments
Protein fibers composition varies. The stable cytoskeletal elements resist mechanical forces action on the cell
Centrioles
Paired cylindrical bodies, each composed of nine triplets of microtublules. Form the bases of cilia and flagella
Cilia
Short, cell surface projects each cilium composed of nine pairs of microtubules surrounding a central pair.
Flagella
Like cilium, but longer, only example in humans is the sperm tail Propels the cell
Microvilli
Tublar extensions of the plasma membrane contain a bundle of actin filaments . Increase surface area for absorption.
Nuclear envelope
Loble membrane structure, pierced by pores outer membrane continuous with the endoplasmic reticulum. Separates the nucleoplasm from the cytoplasm and regulates passage to and from nucleus
Nucleoli
Dense spherical bodies composed of ribosomal RNA and proteins Site of ribosome subunit manufacture
Cromatin
Granular threadlike material composed of DNA and histone proteins