• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/45

Click to flip

45 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
creationism
biological similarities and differences originated at the Creation; characteristics of life forms were seen as immutable--they could not change
Carolus Linnaeus
developed the first comprehensive classification, or taxonomy, of plants and animals
catastrophism
fires, floods, and other catastrophes, including the biblical flood had destroyed ancient species; after flood, God created again leading to contemporary species
evolution (transformism)
alternative to creationism and catastrophism; species arose from others through a long and gradual process of transformation, or descent with modification
uniformitarianism
the present is the key to the past; necessary building block of evolutionary theories
natural selection
explained the origin of species, biological diversity, and similarities among related life forms

Process by which nature selects the forms most fit to survive and reproduce in a given environment
strategic resources
necessary resources for life such as food and space
genetics
help understand the causes of biological variation
Mendelian genetics
studies the ways in which chromosomes transmit genes across generations
biochemical genetics
examines structure, function and changes in DNA
population genetics
investigates natural selection and other causes of genetic variation, stability, and change in breeding population
dominant
trait could mask the other form in mixed individuals
recessive
traits would appear in unaltered form in later generations because genetic traits were inherited as descrete units
chromosomes
arrnaged in matching pairs; carry information; humans have 46 arranged in 23 pairs, half of pair from mother, 1/2 from father
gene
determines wholly or partially a particular biolobical trait
alleles
biochemically different forms of a given gene
heterozygous
mixed offspring
homozygous
possessing two identical alleles of a gene
genotype
hereditary makeup; what you really are genetically
phenotype
expressed physical characteristics; what you appear as
independent assortment
traits are inherited independently of one another
recombination
important in biological evolution because it creates new types on which natural selection can operate
zygote
fertilized egg
mitosis
ordinary cell division which continues as the organism grows
meiosis
special process by which sex cells are produced; four cells are produced from one instead of 2 from 1
gene pool
all the alleles and genotypes within a breeding population
genetic evolution
change in gene frequency, that is, in the frequency of alleles in a breeding population from generation to generation
mechanism of genetic evolution
include natural selection, mutation, random genetic drift, and gene flow
adaptive
most favored by natural selection in that environment will be selected again and again from generation to generation
directional selection
long-term selection of the same trait(s)
sexual selection
based on differential success in mating; the term for this process i which certain traits of one sex are selected because of advantages they confer in winning mates
sickle-cell anemia
individuals whoa re homozygous for Hb^S; red blood cells are shaped like crescents; interferes with the blood's ability to store oxygen
mutations
occur spontaneously and regularly; changes in the DNA molecules of which genes and chromosomes are built
random genetic drift
change in allele frequency that results not from natural selection but from chance
gene flow
exchange of genetic material between populations of the same species; works in conjunction with natrual selection by providing variety on which selection can work
species
a group of related organisms whose members can interbreed to produce offspring that can live and reproduce
speciation
generally prvented by gene flow; formation of new species
approaches to study of human biological diversity
1. racial classification
2. current explanatory approach
racial classification
attempt to assign humans to discrete categories based on common ancestry
clines
shifts in gene frequencies between neighboring groups
melanin
primary determinant of human skin color; chemical substance manufactured in the epidermis or outer skin layer
tropics
belt extending about 23 degrees north and south of the equator where most dark skinned people lived in the 16th century
rickets
nutritional disease; softens and deforms the bones as a result of a stortage of vitamine D diminishing the absorption of calcium in the intestines
hypervitaminosis D
a potentially fatal condition caused by too much vitamin D; calcium depostis build up in the body's soft tissues
phenotypical adaptation
adaptive changes occur during the individual's lifetime; made possible by our ability to change in response to the enviornments we encounter as we grow(plasticity)