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29 Cards in this Set

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What are minerals?
Naturally occuring inorganic, specific physical and chemical properties
What are minerals used for?
Some are essential for life. They are used in everything we make ei roads, buildings (metals) Help grow food.
How does the availability of minerals relate to the standard of living?
More mineral availability - standard of living increases. Minerals allow for industrialization by creating building blocks etc.
Are minerals renewable? Explain.
No, minerals are not a renewable resource - they are used and not regenerated - they are recyclable.
What is an ore deposit?
An ore deposit is a high concentration of minerals.
Explain how mineral deposits are formed through the following processes:
Plate tectonics Plate boundaries
At divergent plate boundries hot magma arises and comes into contact with cold ocean water and there metals are leached and deposited as the water cools.
Igneous processes
As the moter rock cools, heavier minerals crystallize early and set toward the bottom of the magma, lighter minerals crystallize later at the top
What are placer deposits?
Deposits that are concentrated in a stream bed.
What are evaporites? What are three types?
Deposits originate by evaporation. The three types are marine evaporites, non-marine evaporites and brines
How minerals are formed by biological processes
Calcium, minerals in shells and bones, oxidation of iron(In addition, sponges and corals make their shells out of calcium carbonate taken from seawater and precipitated as the minerals calcite or aragonite.
weathering What is the result of weathering?
chemical and mechanical decomposition of rock. Concentrates of some minerals in the soil.
What is secondary enrichment?
The process by which a metal deposit becomes concentrated when other minerals are eliminated from the deposit, as through dissolution, precipitation, or weathering.
Describe the three primary mineral resources derived from the sea.
1. Magnesium: Magnesium, dissolved in sea water at a concentration of about 1,000 parts per million, is the only metal directly extracted from sea water
2. Sulfide deposits - Massive sulfide deposits contain Zinc, copper and Iron are found on the sea at divergent plates.
3. Manganese oxide. Found in nodules on the sea floor - also contain iron.
What are black smokers?
Mineral rich water at thermal vents.
What is the Law of the Seabed?
International laws concerning ocean mining that prevent wealthy nations from exploiting minerals that are not necessarily theres.
What are some of the environmental and political problems associated with mining the seabed?
Environmental - disrupting and degrading the bottom and near bottom enviornments. Political - seabed resources outside national limits are a common heritage of human kind.
What are mineral resources and mineral reserves?
Mineral resources are elements, chemical compounds, minerals or rocks concentrated in a form that can be extracted to obtain a usable commodity. Mineral reserves - portion of a resource that is identified and from which usable materials can be legally and economically extracted.
Explain why resources aren't reserves.
Because they are presumed to exist but they may not be legally or economically exploitable.
What are our options when the availability of a mineral becomes a limitation?
We would have to switch our technologies to other resources.
Explain the three patterns of resource use depicted in figure 29.5
Rapid consumption uses resources quickly but does not leave them for the future. Conservation enable the resources to be used for a longer period of time but still eventually drops. conservatin and recyling keeps the resource going for a long period of time and make keep it stable after depletion.
The US consumes a disproportionate share of the world’s minerals. What are some of the political implications of our dependence on foreign imports?
We must remain on good terms with foreign countries and help stop current issues like civils wars in order to protect our import of minerals and resources that are produced.
What are some of the environmental impacts of mineral exploration and use?
Exploration has a mineral impact on the enviornment but some areas are very sensitive to small disturbances such as vehicular traffic. There is great impact on the land water and air and biologic resources from mining and ming waste.
What are the advantages and disadvantages of surface and subsurface mining?
Advantages: surface mining: cheaper, easier to get to.
Subsurface mining: Subsurface mining: greater aethetic appear and less surface land impact.

Disadvantages of surface mining: possible release of harmful trace elements into the environment, water resources are vunerable to degradation. Disadvantage of subsurface mining: The mining operation waste comes into contact with slow moving subsurface water.
What are tailings?
They are the waste materials left over after removing the minerals from ore. (ORE EXTRACTION)
What is acid mine drainage?
cid mine drainage (AMD), also called acid rock water or acid rock drainage (ARD), refers to the outflow of acidic water from (usually) abandoned metal mines or coal mines
What does the Surface Mine Reclamation Act of 1977 require?
The Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (SMCRA) is the primary federal law that regulates the environmental effects of coal mining in the United States. As stated above, SMCRA has two main parts: regulation of active mines and reclamation of abandoned mine systems.
What are some of the social impacts of mineral exploitation?
Stress is placed on local services such as water supply, sewage, solid waste disposal and schools and housing.
What can we do to delay a crisis by overuse of mineral resources?
Environmental regulations at the state, federal and local level. On and off site treatment of waste, practicing the R's of waste managment
General Mining Act of 1872 and some of the social and political implications of this law.
Designed to promote development in the west. Originally intended to provide jobs and develop the economy. All public land was open for prospecting metals and minerals.