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75 Cards in this Set

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Scrotum
contains the testes and is divided into two internal compartments by an incomplete connective tissue septum;
Raphe
an irregular ridge marking the external midline of the scrotum; continues posteriorly to the anus and anteriorly to the base of the penis
Dartos muscle
a layer of smooth muscle within the scrotum; contracts when exposed to cool temperatures; pulls the skin upward, decreasing the overall size of the scrotum
Cremaster muscles
extensions of adominal muscles into the scrotum; contract in colder temperatures to help pull the testes nearer the body, helping to keep the testes warm; relax in warm temperatures to lower the testes away from the body;
lies between the two layers of spermatic fascia covering the spermatic cord
Perineum
the area between the thighs bounded by the symphysis pubis anteriorly, the coccyx posteriorly, and the ischial tuberosities laterally
Urogenital triangle
anterior triangle within the perineum;
contains the base of the penis and the scrotum
Anal triangle
posterior triangle within the perineum;
contains the anal opening
Testes
small ovoid organs;
primary reproductive organ in the male;
both exocrine and endocrine glands
Tunica albuginea
the outer part of the testis; thick, white capsule consisting of mostly fibrous connective tissue
Septa (testes)
connective tissue divisions within the testis that divides the internal portion of the organ into numerous lobules
Lobules
cone shaped compartments within the interior protion of the testis;
formed by the incomplete septa of the tunica albuginea
Seminiferous tubules
the sight of spermatogenesis in the testes;
surrounded by a loose connective tissue stroma that surrounds the tubules and contains clusters of interstitial cells
Interstitial cells
endocrine cells located between the seminiferous tubules; produce testosterone
Tubuli recti
a set of short, straight tubules into which the seminiferous tubules empty
Rete testis
a tubular network into which the tubuli recti empty
Efferent ductules
each testis contains 15-20 of these tubules into which the rete testis empties into; pierce the tunica albuginea to exit the testes;
inner layer contains ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium that helps move sperm cells out of the testis
Gubernaculum
a fibromuscular cord that attaches the testes to the tissue that will become the scrotum; developed by the 14th week
Inguinal canal
bilateral oblique passageways in the anterior abdominal wall;
forms between weeks 14 and 28; testes move through them to descend into the srotum;
much smaller in females
Process vaginallis
an outpocketing of the peritoneum that precedes the descent of the testes
Tunica vagnialis
the residual portion of the process vaginallis in adults; surrounds most of the testis, small amount of fluid in it allows the testis to move with little friction; a serous membrane consisting of a layer of simple squamous epithelium that rests on a basement membrane
Deep inguinal rings
origination point of the inguinal canal; open through the aponeuroses of the transverse abdominal muscles
Superficial inguinal rings
termination point of the inguinal canals; opening in the aponeuroses of the external abdominal oblique muscles
Cryptorchidism
a failure of one or both of the testes to descend into the scrotum; the higher temperature of the abdominal caivty prevents nromal sperm production
Spermatogenesis
the process of sperm cell development
Sustentacular cells (Sertoli cells)
large cells that extend from the periphery to the lumen of the seminiferous tubule;
nourish germ cells; probably work with interstitial cells in producing numeorus hormones
Blood-testis barrier
tight juncitons located between sustentacular cells; isolates sperm cells from the immune system;
significant because as sperm cells develop, they form surface antigens that the immune system would attack
Dihydrotestosterone
a hormone produced in sustentacular cells from testosterone
Androgen-binding protein
a protein secreted into the seminiferous tubules by the sustentacular cells;
carries hormones created in the testis to the epididymis
Spermatogonia
the most peripheral cells in the seminiferous tubules;
divide by mitosis
Primary spermatocyte
spermatocyte arising by a growth phase from a spermatogonium; gives rise to secondary spermatocytes after first meiotic division
Secondary spermatocyte
spermatocyte derived from a primary spermatocyte by the first meitoic division;
each secondary spermatocyte gives rise by the second meiotic division to two spermatids
Spermatids
immature sperm cells that result fromt the secondary spermatocyte by the second meiotic division
Spermiogenesis
the process by which a spermatid becomes a spermatozoan;
during this time, the head, midpiece and tail are formed
Spermatozoan
a mature sperm cell
Acrosome
a cap on the head of the spermatozoan;
contains hydrolytic enzymes used to pierce the surface of the secondary oocyte
Epididymis
a comma shaped structure on the posterior side of the testis into which the efferent ductus leads;
site of final sperm cell maturation
Duct of the epididymis
a convoluted structure of the epididymis through which sperm cells move;
contains pseudostratified columnar epithelium with elongated microvilli
Stereocilia
elongated microvilli within the duct of the epididymis that function to increase the surface area of the epithelial cells that absorb fluid from the lumen of the duct
Ductus deferens (vas deferens)
the emerging end of the epididymis, ascends along the posterior side of the testis medial to the epididymis and become associated with the blood vessels and nerves that supply the testis
Spermatic cord
a structure conssisting of the ductus deferens, the testicular artery and venous plexus, lymphatic vessels, nerves, fibrous remnant of the process vaginallis
External and Internal spermatic fascia
external and internal connective tissue layers the surround the spermatic cord
Ampulla
an enlargement at the end of the ductus deferens
Ejaculatory duct
a short duct leading from the seminal vesicle and joining the ampulla of the ductus deferens;
project into the prostata gland and end by opening into the urethra
Male urethra
extends from the urinary bladder to the distal end of the penis;
passageway for male reproductive fluids and urine; divided into three parts, prostatic, membranous, and spongy
Prostatic urethra
a section of the male urethra that is connected to the urinary bladder and passes through the prostate gland;
ejaculatory ducts and other ducts join the urethra here
Membranous urethra
shortest part of the urethra;
extends from the prostate gland through the perineum
Spongy urethra
the longest part of the urethra;
extends from the membranous urethra through the length of the penis
Penis
male copulatory organ
Corpora cavernosa
two erectile columns that form the dorsum and sides of the penis; during erection, these fill with blood
Corpus spongiosum
erectile column that forms the ventral portion of the penis; expands to form a cap called the glans penis; urethra passes through
Glans penis
a cap formed over the distal end of the penis by the corpus spongiosum
External urethral orifice
the external opening of the urehtra
Seminal vesicles
sac-shaped glands located next to the ampullae of the ductus deferentia; have capsules containing fibrous connective tissue and smooth muscle cells
Prostate gland
consists of both glandular and muscular tissue and is about the size and shape of a walnut; dorsal to the symphysis pubis at the base of the urinary bladder
Bulbourethral glands
a pair of small glands located near the membranous part of the urethra; small ducts from each gland unite to form a single duct which enters the songy urethra at the base of the penis
Semen
a composite of sperm cells and secretions from the male reproductive glands;
60% from the seminal vesicles
30% from the prostate gland
5% from the testes
5% from the bulbourehtral glands
Emission
discharge and acculmulation of semen into the prostatic urethra; sympathetic reactions cause peristalsis, causing semen to be released in to the prostatic urethra
Ejaculation
the forceful expulsion of semen from the urethra caused by the contraction of the urethra, the skeletal muscles in the floow of the pelvis, and the muscles at the base of the penis
What are the primary effects of LH on the male reproductive system?
binds to interstital cells in the testes and causes them to increase their rate of testosterone synthesis and secretion
What are the primary effects of FSH on the male reproductive system?
binds primarily to sustentacular cells in the seminiferous tubules and promotes sperm cell development
Testosterone
the major male hormone secreted by the testes; classified as an andorgen because it stimulates the development of male reproductive organs; also regulates GnRH secretion
Inhibin
a hormone secreted by the sustentacular cells of the seminiferous tubules; inhibits FSH secretion from the anterior pituitary
Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG)
a gonadotropin-like hormone secreted by the placenta;
stimulates the synthesis and secretion of testosterone by the fetal testes before birth
Puberty
the age at which individuals become capable of sexual reproduction;
during this stage, the hypothalamus becomes much less sensitive to the inhibitory effects of androgens, GnRH secretions increase
What are some of the effets of testosterone on the body?
hair growth, coarser skin, increase the rate of sebaceous secretions in facial region, hypertrophy of larynx, reduced tension in vocal cords, general stimulatory effect on metabolism, sodium retention, promotes protein synthesis, rapid bone growth
Orgasm
a climactic sensation that occurs during the male sexual act, associated with ejaculation
Resolution
Post-ejaculatory phase in which the penis becomes flaccid, an overall feeling of satisfaction exists, and the male is unable to achieve erection
Impotence
the inability to achieve or maintain an erection and to accomplish the male sexual act
Describe the pathway by which the male sexual response is executed.
action potentials are conducted by sensory neurons from the genitals through the pudendal nerve to the sacral region of the spinal cord where reflexes are conducted;
action potentials from the cerebrum reinforce the sacral reflexes;
nerve fibers release ACh and NO (smooth muscle relaxation)
Erection
parasympathetic; the first major component of the male sexual act; occurs when the penis becomes enlarged and rigid from blood filling the sinusoids of erectile tissue; results from ACh and NO release from pudendal nerve
Broad ligament
an extension of the peritoneum that spreads out on both sides of the uterus and to which the ovaries and uterine tubes are attached;
Ovaries
female reproductive organs;
site of oogenesis
Mesovarium
a peritoneal fold that attaches each ovary to the posterior surface of the brad ligament
Suspensory ligament
extends from the mesovarium to the body wall, helping to support the ovaries
Ovarian ligament
attaches the ovary to the superior margin of the uterus